Achla Fort, The Westernmost In The Chandor Range, about 32 km. (20 miles) north of Dindori, was described by Captain Briggs in 1818 as a large hill, little different from the other hill-forts in the, same range. The ascent is fairly easy till near the top where it is steep and craggy. The foundation of a wall runs round a part of the hill near the doorway but it was either never finished or has fallen. Captain Briggs tells us that there was no building nor a place to keep ammunition except a thatched guard-house. Achla was one of the seventeen fortified places which surrendered to Colonel McDowell on the fall of Trimbak in 1818.
in Niphad taluka, with 1,503 inhabitants in 1971 and lying 16 km. (ten
miles) north of Niphad, is largely an agricultural village chiefly growing
wheat and bajri. Well-irrigation is popular, there being nearly
eighty such wells, and is augmented by a bandhara across the
Netravanti rivulet. It is interesting as the place, where two years
after his escape from the
Ahivant or the Serpent Fort, in the Chandor range, about 24.14 km. (fifteen miles) north of Dindori, was described by Captain Briggs in 1818 as "a large and shapeless hill, remarkably bleak and unhealthy". It is accessible both from Khandesh and Gangathadi. The road from Khandesh is good and easy. The Gangathadi route is remarkably steep being entirely a water-course, almost impassable in the rains. A sort of rough but useless dam was built across the ravine to turn off the water. After passing the ravine the road turns off and is then assisted by steps. There were two small arches intended for doors and a little very ruinous wall near the arches. On the hill there is a ruined store-house built of stone and mortar. The water-supply in the fort is ample. There were then five militia-men or shibandis on the hill. The gates have all crumbled and the ruins of the store-house can still be seen.
with 1,096 inhabitants in 1911, is largely an agricultural village in
Dindori taluka lying about 20.92 km. (thirteen miles) west of Dindori.
Its only claim, to importance lies in a richly-carved Hemadpanti
with 1,528 inhabitants in 1971, is a small village in
a flat-topped mass of hill (4,295 feet= 1,309.11 metres) in Nasik taluka,
is almost detached from its western neighbour Trimbak by the chief pass
leading into west Igatpuri and falls eastward into the plain in a short
and low chain of bare hills, The general direction of the hill is north
and south, though there are spurs of considerable elevation on the other
sides. The area covered by the main body of the hill is about three
square miles (7.77 square kilometres) or a little more. It is four miles
(6.43 km.) from Trimbak town and about fourteen miles (22.53 km.) from
The main attraction of the north-eastern side of the first plateau is a charming little pond, surrounded with jambhul trees on three sides and affording, owing to the lowness of its bank on the fourth, a grand view over the district spread out like a map below. From the south side the upper wall, which is here less precipitous than to the west, rises almost from the water. The water of the pond has a reputation for unwholesomeness, and hence a good well has been sunk near the houses. There are, in addition to this pond, two others on this plateau, besides a few springs. One of the ponds holds little water after the rains, but in the other, there remains enough for the few cattle that go to graze above the darvaza.
elevation above the sea is about 4,300 feet (1,310.64 metres) on the
upper scarp plateau, and about 3,700 feet (1,127.76 metres) at the pond.
This height, the splendid views, the comparatively shaded walks, and
the accessibility from
called a fort, the hill does not, like Trimbak, bear signs of having
been adopted by artificial means for defence. What is known of its history
seems to indicate that from the first time it was visited for purposes
of state, it was intended only as a health resort. Raghunathrav, otherwise
known as Raghoba Dada, the father of the last Peshva, was exiled
to Anandvalli, a small village on the Godavari, to the west of
Below Anjaneri are the remains of large and highly finished temples, which seem to have been in their present ruined state for several hundred years. They are said to date from the time of the Gavali or shepherd kings, but they belong to the time of the early Yadavas. In the centre piece of the door of all of them is a figure of the Jain Tirthankara in either a sitting or a standing posture, canopied by a hooded snake, and surrounded by rich foliage and highly finished cornices. One only has a large cross-legged image of a Tirthankara. Many other images have been thrown down and broken. Among other ruins there are figures of Ganesha and the linga, worshipped to the present day. One of the temples with Jain figures has a Sanskrit inscription, dated A.D. 1140 (Shaka 1063), recording the grant of the income of some shops to the Jain temple by a Vani minister of the Yadav ruler Seunadeva.
generally known as Ankai-Tankai, the strongest hill-fort in the district,
rises about 274.32 metres (900 feet) above the plain and 975.36 metres
(3,200 feet) above the sea, and lies 9.65 km. (six miles) north of Yeola
near the Manmad and Ahmadnagar road. The hill-top commands a wide view
of Khandesh and the
1635 Ankai-Tankai fort, with Alka-Palka, was captured by Shah Jahan's
general Khan Khanan. In 1665 Thevenot mentions Ankai as a stage between
During the last Maratha war Lieutenant-Colonel McDowell's detachment came to Ankai on the 5th of April 1818. On the previous day negotiations had been opened with the commandant whose master, a chief in the neighbourhood, had sent orders for surrender. On arriving before the fort, as he found matters not fully settled, Lieutenant-Colonel McDowell ordered a pair of six-pounders to the gate of the village or petta at the foot of the hill. This was instantly opened and a surrender effected, and a. party from the detachment climbed the lofty battlements of Ankai, and without striking a blow hoisted the British flag on the summit. The whole of the guns on the top had been loaded and the matches lighted; nor was it without the greatest difficulty and a handsome gratuity that the commandant prevailed on the garrison to retire without giving the British camp a volley. The garrison amounted to about 300 men with about forty guns. Considering the works and the amount of stores it was fortunate for the British that all were secured without bloodshed. The surrender of Ankai was of great importance to the English, as, if it had held out, even for a short time of the numerous other forts would probably have been encouraged to offer resistance. Within the fort were found forty pieces of ordnance with a large store of ammunition. There were about Rs. 12,000 in cash and Rs. 20,000 more were raised from prize sales. A party of forty native infantry under a European officer was left in the fort. Of the four Ankai, Tankai, Alka and Palka, all but Ankai were dismantled.
The Dhond-Manmad section of the Central Railway has a station at Ankai. A siding about 4.82 km. (three miles) long runs from the station to a quarry from which stone was obtained for the bridges and buildings on the Manmad end of the railway. The quarry is still worked [The account of the three Brahmanical caves is given in the General Volume on Places.].
Aundah, on the south-west boundary of Sinnar taluka, about 16 km. (ten miles) south of Devlali, the nearest railway station, is a natural stronghold ending in a sharp cone with no traces of any built fort. The rock-cut steps that formerly led up this cone have since long been destroyed, and the summit to-day remains almost inaccessible. On the opposite hill some fine six-sided basalt pillars stand out from the hill side. A curious trap dyke also stretches in a series of low mounds for some kilometres from the foot of Aundah towards Kavnai. About 3.21 km. (two miles) south of Aundah, stands Pattah, a larger bluff lying within the Ahmadnagar boundaries. It has a fiat top, rising in one place to a low peak, below which there is a large chamber cut in rock serving as an ideal camping place in the hot weather. The two strong-holds with the joining ridge form a regular arc facing northwards. The arc includes the valuable forests of Bhandardara about 16 km. (ten miles) south-east of Belgaon Kurhe.
of these forts are said to have been built during the latter half of
the fourteenth century, when the Bahamani dynasty (1347-1490) established
its power over the
Bahula Fort, with a height of 965 metres (3,165 feet) and about ten miles (16 km.) south-west of Nasik, was described by Captain Briggs in 1818 as difficult of access, with only one road up the scarp of the rock by steep steps. These steps went to within twelve or fourteen feet (3.65 or 4.26 metres) perpendicular height of the gate, and these twelve feet (3.65 metres) were climbed by a ladder which was drawn up at pleasure into the fort. This contrivance rendered the gate almost as inaccessible as the rest of the hill. Captain Briggs considered it the simplest and strongest mode of protecting the entrance to the gates of such hill-forts. A frail wall ran round part of the fort. The top of the fort was very small and had a ruined arched building like a bomb-proof. There was plenty of water, and, at the foot of the scarp outside the fort, was a fine excavation in the rock which served as a granary. Presently the fort is in possession of the Indian Army where firing practices are conducted.
Bk., with 881 inhabitants in 1971, is a village in Nandgaon taluka lying
eight kilometres (five miles) south of Nandgaon. It has an antique Hemadpanti
on the banks of the Darna, is a municipal town in
Bhaskargad Fort, about 12.87 km. (eight miles) south of Igatpuri, is described by Captain Briggs, who visited it in 1818, as easy of access, but with a long ascent to the foot of the scarp. The path to the fort lies through thick bamboo brushwood which hides all view of the fort to within 183 metres (200 yards). The path then continues nearly across the whole side of the hill by a narrow track under the scarp of the rock which is too over-hanging for stones hurled from the top to reach the track. But from here the ascent is by good broad steps cut out of deep road in the rock and rendered easy by its winding route. At the top is a good strong gate. There never were on the fort-top bombproofs for ammunition or provisions and these were always kept in thatched houses. The water-supply on the fort is ample and good.
largely an agricultural village in Sinnar taluka with 2,026 persons
as per the 1971 Census, lies about 16 km. (ten miles) south of Sinnar.
It is composed of two hamlets, Sonevadi and Kasarvadi, situated at some
distance from each other. The village has a
Leni or the
The caves are about 450 feet (137.16 metres) from the base of the hill and face south-west. The upper part of the ascent is by a stair of roughly dressed stone, containing 173 steps of varying heights and with side parapets. At the 163rd step a path leads to two rock-cut cisterns on the right, one with a broken top and the other with two square openings. Above the built stair sixteen steps cut in the scarp lead to the cave terrace. Beginning from the left or west there is, in a slight recess, a cistern with two openings broken into one. Next is a cave with a veranda with four columns, of which the left column and pilaster are square and unfinished and the others are eight-sided. On the rock over the cave is built a lotus-bud cupola like those on structural temples. In the left end of the veranda is a covered cell; in the back, at the left side, a door has been begun but not cut through the wall; next to it is a plain rectangular window. The central doorway which is plain with a raised sill, has at the sides a pair of saints or Tirthankaras doing duty as door-keepers. Gautama, on the left, is five feet two inches (1.574 metres) high and is attended by two female figures about 3½ feet (1.066 metres) high. Over the door is a Jina seated cross-legged, about fourteen inches (0.355 metre) high, on a throne with three lions in front with a male fly-whisk bearer twenty-one inches (0.533 metre) high on each side. To the left of this is a fat figure seated on a kneeling elephant; and to the right is the goddess Ambika seated on some crouching animal, and holding a child on her knee. Parshvanath stands on the right of the door with a five-hooded snake canopying his head. On his right a female attendant, about three inches (0.076 metre) high, has a single cobra hood over her head; and to her right a man kneels on one knee. To the right of this is another window, and then a side door leading into a rough part of the cave which is walled from the rest. In the right end of the veranda is an unfinished cell with a bench, and over the door is a sculpture like that over the central door but somewhat larger. As the sculpture is in coarse spongy rock, it is rough, and seems to have been freshened at a comparatively late date. The interior is roughly hewn and not properly squared. At the left end is a group of figures in a slight recess. The group includes a cross-legged Tirthankara, ten inches (0.254 metre) high, on a throne which has the bull or sign-mark of Adinatha, in the centre. To the left of the throne is a squatting figure and then two five-inch (0.127 metre) standing male figures. The lower part of the other side is unfinished. Outside each of the Jina's arms is another five-inch (0.127 metre) Jina similarly seated, and, over each of the three heads, is a painted canopy with a male figure three and a half inches (0.089 metre) high to the central canopy and a similar figure on each of the side ones. Round this group are twenty-one shallow recesses, an inch and a half square, each containing a seated Jina. Of these five are down each side, three on each side slope up towards one in the centre, one is under each of the lowest in the slopes, and one is over each shoulder of the larger figure. These, with the three main figures, complete the twenty-four Tirthankaras or Jina’s. A bench goes round three sides of the cave. On the back wall, above the bench, in the centre, is a three-feet (0.914 metre) Parshvanath seated on a throne with three lions below, his head canopied by a seven-hooded snake. Above is a small seated figure, and, on each side, is a standing figure two feet nine inches (0.838 metre) high with high cap and fly-whisk. On each side of these fly-whisk bearers is a large seated figure with high ornamental cap, necklace, and ear-rings. The left figure is a man on a kneeling elephant with foliage below; the right figure is Ambika, on a crouching lion or tiger, and at her knee is a reclining female figure. Beyond each of these is a seated male, three feet five inches (1.041 metres) high, like to the central figure and with similar fly-whisk bearers, but also with a triple umbrella held over a seven-hooded snake by heavenly choristers or vidyadharas. The right group has Gautama standing under foliage and with no other canopy. To the extreme right is part of a standing male and other unfinished figures.
About ten yards (9.14 metres) to the right is a recess as if the beginning of a cave, and seven yards (6.40 metres) farther is the third excavation, with an open veranda. On the left wall is a figure two feet (0.609 metre) high, seated on an animal, with a canopy above and pilasters down each side of the compartment. On the right wall, in a similar recess, is Ambika on her tiger, with a child on her left knee, and a standing figure one foot (0.304 metre) high below her right knee and behind the tiger; figures also stand by the pilasters and appear in the canopy overhead. In the back of the veranda is an ornamental central doorway with raised sill having two griffins or lions' heads in front; an ornamental pilaster is on each side, and over the lintel is a cornice with small standing males over each pilaster, and the centre of the door. To the left of the door is the cobra-hooded Parshvanatha, with two smaller attendants, and down each side of the panel is an ornamental pilaster on which small standing figures are carved, On the right side of the door is a much-defaced Gautama; with decayed seated attendants below on each side, and several small figures on the side pilasters, The hall is eight or nine square feet (0.743 or 0.836 square metre), On the left wall is a group, containing two ten-inch(0.254 metre) Jina’s, seated on a cushion with two lions below each. To the right and left are Ambika and Indra with attendants. To the left of each Jina is a standing male. The canopies and twenty-one very small seated Jina’s are nearly the same as before. By the sides of the central figures are three males in a row, with triple umbrellas over their heads, very rudely cut. The back wall has a built bench in front and three standing male figures, the central figure three feet five inches (1.041 metres), and the side figures three feet three inches (0.990 metre) high, with four ornamental pilasters between and at the sides of the compartments they occupy. At the base of each pilaster is a standing Jina. Overhead is scroll work and figures. The base of each pilaster contains a small standing male with his arms by his sides, and in the capital is a very small squatting Jina. Beyond the outer pilasters are other standing figures fifteen inches (0.381 metre) high. To the left of this group is another squatting figure fourteen inches (0.355 metre) high with clasped hands and a large back knot of hair. On each side of each of the three large male figures in the lower corners are very small kneeling female figures with large back knots of hair. On the right wall are two small seated Jina’s and to the right is a twelve-inch (0.394 metre) Ambika, seated on her bearers, with a child on her left knee, and the stem of a mango-tree behind and above her head. Some mangoes hang on each side and there is a small seated male above.
About ten feet (3.04 metres) to the right is the fourth cave, a recess fifteen feet (4.57 metres) wide and seven feet (2.13 metres) deep. In the centre is the upper part of an unfinished figure of a seated Parshvanatha seven feet (2.13 metres) from the top of the head to the waist, and with a man and hooded snake canopying the head, To the right the rock is undercut and on the level top of the projecting part three half lotuses are carved, The middle lotus is four feet and six inches (1.37 metres) in diameter and side ones half the size and five feet (1.52 metres) from centre to centre. A square socket for a flag staff is sunk in the centre of each lotus and raised foot-prints are sculptured on the flat centre of the middle lotus. A recess has been begun close to the right of the lotuses and over the top of the stair. The carving is poor.
more properly Chandavad, situated in 20°20' north latitude and 74 °
16' east longitude, lies at the foot of a range of hills known by the
same name, from 182.88 to 304.80 metres (600 to 1,000 feet) above the
plain and 1,219.20 to 1,371.60 metres (4,000 to 4,500 feet) above sea-level.
In this range are situated some of the most prominent forts of
Occupying a sloping ground, the town was once surrounded by a mud-wall whose remains can still be seen. The habitations are inter-spersed with gardens and fine trees, and look picturesque from the neighbouring heights. In 1800 Malharrav Holkar moved the mint from the fort to the town as a result of a quarrel between the fort commandant and the mint authorities. Remains of a quadrangular building (40' X 30') occupied by the mint, can still be seen in the fort.
Chandor, being the headquarters of a taluka, has the offices of Mamlatdar and the block development officer. There are also the offices of the forest ranger and the sub-divisional soil conservator. The town has post and telegraph facilities, a police station, three primary schools, one high school and a library receiving an annual grant of Rs. 500 from Government. Zilla Parishad maintains a dispensary with an attached maternity ward as also a veterinary dispensary. There is a sub-market-yard of the Lasalgaon market committee where large quantities of onion and gur are handled during the busy season. A weekly market is held on Mondays. The village panchayat has laid out a kachcha drainage system for the town.
Objects: South-west of the town immediately outside of the gateway is a rather fine Hemadpanti temple and well. Three quarters of a mile north-east of the town is a temple of Renukadevi, cut in the rocky side of the Rahud pass, about 100 feet (30.48 metres) above the town. Flights of built steps lead to the portico. The image is rock-cut and about five feet (1.52 metres) high. West of the Chandor fort, and east of the town, is a rock-cut temple in the form of a deep apse thirty feet (9.14 metres) wide by twenty-one feet (6.40 metres) deep. It has Jain sculptures, and is now dedicated to Kalika Devi. The town has also an antique mosque known as the Badshahi or emperor's mosque which has a Persian inscription. On the full-moon of Pausha (January-February) a fair, attended by about 2,000 people, used to be held in honour of Khandoba. It has been discontinued since long.
Standing on the flat top
of a naturally strong hill immediately above the town, Chandor fort
(3.994 feet = 1,217.37 metres) was accessible from only one point which
was fortified by a strong gateway. Since the blasting of this route
by the Britishers, the fort has been rendered almost inaccessible. Its
importance lay in the fact that it commanded the Chandor pass, an important
opening between Khandesh and
Its position on the high
road from Berar to
Chauler fort, 1,138 metres (3,733 feet) in height, lying 14.48 kill. (nine miles) south-west of Satana, was described in 1826 as a high hill-fort, difficult of access. It is surrounded by strong hilly and woody country. Of the four well-defended gates, two to the lower and two to the upper fort, only one remains in a fairly good condition. Both the forts are well-supplied with water. The interior buildings as also the defences of the fort are lying in ruins. Within 150 yards (137.16 metres) of the first entrance is a winding stair cut through the solid rock for about eighty to ninety yards (73.15 to 82.29 metres). It is completely commanded by the lower works. Though naturally strong, few of its defences are remaining.
with 3,891 inhabitants in 1971, lies in a valley about 3.21 km. (two
miles) to the right of the Bombay-Agra road and 16 km. (ten miles) north-east
of Malegaon, the taluka headquarters. It has a travellers' bungalow,
a post office and a middle school. About half a kilometre to the south
is a large pond mostly utilized for bathing and washing the cattle.
The old Hemadpanti
with 1,081 inhabitants in 1971, is a small agricultural village in Baglan
taluka lying about 16 km. (ten miles) north-east of Satana. At a little
distance from the village is a well-carved Hemadpanti
Devlali, with 30,618 inhabitants in 1971, is a railway station on the Bombay-Nagpur section of the Central Railway and is an excellent health resort affording all modern amenities to the holiday-goers. During the hot season it is crowded by holiday-goers for whom holiday camps are provided. The situation is healthy, the water good, and the view of the distant ranges remarkably fine. Devlali is all the more important because of its being a permanent military station where a big artillery training centre has been set up. There are three primary schools and three high schools. It has a 55-bedded hospital with separate maternity ward and a separate ward for infectious diseases. The town has tap water supply. It has a cantonment board which looks after the administrative affairs. The land around produces excellent vegetables.
with 2,998 inhabitants in 1971, is a small village in Chandor taluka
lying 19.21 km. (twelve miles) west of Chandor and containing a curious
Fort 1,445 metres (4,741 feet) high, about 24 km. (fifteen miles) north-west
of Chandor, is the highest and most prominent hill in the
To ascend to the fort, the
entrance to which is imperceptible from the village, a path is followed
which zigzags up a steep slope to a bare wall of black rock cut into
steps in two places. These being surmounted, a double gate is reached
in a series of bastions and walls called the khandari or outworks.
The actual fort is still at a considerable height above, and the way
re-commences its tortuous course up a second slope, varied with projecting
slabs of bare rock. At last the real entrance to the fort is attained.
This is a completely hidden passage cut in the living rock with two
towers in it, and concealed by an outer wall of solid rock and, in its
upper portion, by passing through a tunnel. Two inscriptions in Persian
characters are cut on the rock near the doorway. One has been defaced
by weather, and the letters are very indistinct. The other is much clearer,
and in addition to the Musalman creed records the name of the builder
of the fort. On emerging from the passage, the first sight that presents
itself is the peak, still towering perpendicularly at a height of three
to four hundred feet (91.44 to 141.92 metres) above the gateway. To
the right of the gateway facing east, is the sadar, or masonry
apartment for the captain or killedar from the top of which a
fine view of the Chandor range is obtained. Behind this is a pool of
filthy water in a small quarry. To the south is a bastion on which was
mounted a ten-pound gun, now lying on the ground, with its muzzle pointing
over the plain it once commanded. Behind it is a high flag-staff. It
belongs to the
Dhodap may be Dhorapavanki
mentioned as one of the forts in the possession of Burhan Nizam Shah
(death 1553). The earliest known mention of Dhodap is the somewhat doubtful
notice of a fort named Dharab which surrendered to the Moghal general
Allah-vardi Khan in 1635. From the Musalmans it passed to the Peshva
who made it the chief of the
the headquarters of the taluka of the same name, with a population of
5,520 in 1971, lies about 24 km. (fifteen miles) north of
Fort lies about fourteen miles (22.53 km.) north of
The upper walls have bastions, which are semi-circles and must have commanded the approach in every direction on the south and west, while the face of the hill, being almost perpendicular for nearly one thousand feet (304.80 metres) below the wall, the lines are as straight as the outlines of the rock allow, and have been defended by large wall pieces, which were moved on iron pivots many of which are still seen on the round bastions at every eighty or hundred yards (73.15 to 91.44 metres) on the west and north faces.
The south side of the hill is a bare scarp for many feet from the wall, and, at about two-thirds of the length from the east, there is a bastion in which are arches of Saracenic form between the central two of which was a slab containing a Persian inscription dated A. D. 1569 (H. 977). There was a second slab in a niche between the battlements, fronting the north and surmounting a row of cellars furnished with moderate-sized windows, and probably intended for residences. This slab contained, a Devnagari inscription dated A. D. 1580 (Saka 1502). Below the date were four lines in Persian to the effect that this bastion was built by one Muhammad Ali Khan and completed on the first of Rabi-ul-Akhir Hijri, or from the employment of the Arabic numerals it may be Sursan, 985, which will make the date fourteen years later or 1583.
tower and bastion is close to the north-west corner of the fort, a part
where the whole of the wall shows marks of repairs, which must have
been recent as compared with the ruins of the original structure in
the valley below. From this tower a narrow stone pavement, which connects
the whole circle of the battlements by flights of steps, leads east
towards the entrance gateways, to a second tower built so as to command
the entire ascent, and immediately facing the third and fourth gateways
at different elevations. From this second tower the side of the hill,
whose slope makes the plateau on the top more conical towards the east
than towards the west, admitted of two walls with batteries for swivel
guns and pierced with loopholes at every elevation. At the second tower
there was a third tablet dated A. D. 1587 (H. 993), which ascribed
its foundation to Muhammad Ali. Underneath the tower were many cells
filled with bad powder and small balls of limestone or trap. The hill
above this spot approaches within thirty yards (27.43 metres) of the
wall, and between this tower and the mosque there are the idol of Galneshvara
Mahadeva, five cisterns and a series of rock-cut caves. Beyond the caves
is a handsome mosque, open to the east, upon a stone terrace, from which
a few steps lead down to a square masonry cistern, beyond which again
begins the descent to the plain. The mosque consists of one room about
forty-eight feet long by twenty-five feet broad (14.63 X 7.62 metres),
and has a handsomely-carved stone window opening on a balcony surmounted
by an elegant cupola which unfolds a fine view. A stone staircase leads
to the roof of the mosque which is surmounted by six small domes; close-by
are the ruins of a palace called the
Galna was an important place
at the end of the fifteenth century. It had for some time been held
by a plundering Maratha chief when, about 1487, two brothers Malik Wuji
and Malik Ashraf, the governors of Daulatabad, took it and held it for
some time. They brought the country into excellent order. In their contest
with Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar, and the disturbances that
followed the murder of Malik Wuji, the Musalmans seem to have been forced
to, give up Galna, and it again passed to a Maratha chief who was reduced
to order and made to pay tribute by Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah in 1506.
On the death of Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah in 1510 the Galna chief once
more threw off his allegiance and could not be made a tributary till
1530, when, with other Maratha chiefs, he was defeated and forced to
pay tribute. Again he became independent, and in 1560 had once more
to be brought under subjection. In 1634 Muhammad Khan, the Musalman
commandant of Galna, intended to deliver the fort to Shahaji, who had
possessed himself of
Ghargad Fort, lying about 9.55 km. (six miles) east of Trimbak and 1,088.75 metres (3,572 feet) above sea-level, was visited by Captain Briggs in 1818. He has left a fair description of this fort too. From that description it can be said that the lower part of the fort is fairly easy of ascent. From the lower part the road runs for some distance under the hill-scarp which affords cover for an assailing force from stones. The road up the scarp is by traverse outside the rock which, though not high, is remarkably steep. The top of the fort is very small with ample water-supply. Captain Briggs notes houses for the garrison but no bomb-proofs, and two gates, one tolerable, the other old and much out of repair. Ghargad surrendered to the British immediately after the fall of Trimbak in 1818.
Ghoti Bk., with 8,122 inhabitants in 1971, is a village of commercial importance in Igatpuri taluka, lying eight kilometres (five miles) north of Igatpuri, the taluka headquarters. It is a railway station on the Bombay-Nagpur section of the Central Railway and has the additional advantage of being on the Bombay-Agra trunk route. There is a large trade in paddy and other grains, paddy and wheat being the principal crops. There are six rice mills and a few oil mills too. The village has one high school, a balvadi and three primary schools of which one is Urdu. It has post and telegraph facilities, a primary health centre, a veterinary dispensary and a police station. Of the temples dedicated to various deities, that of Shani claims religious importance. Though quite antique it is in good repair. The dependence of the populace on well and river water would be done away with, with the installation of water-works under way. A largely-attended weekly bazar is held on Saturday.
Gangapur, lying 9.65 km. (six miles) west of
About a quarter of a mile
east of Govardhan-Gangapur the Godavari passes over a wall of dark
trap which from below rises about twenty feet (6.09 metres) from the
bed of the river, Except in floods the water passes through a partly
artificial cleft close to the right bank of the river. It rushes down
in two falls each about eight feet (2.43 metres) high which, from the
whiteness of the foam during the fair season, are locally known as Dudhasthali
or the Place of Milk. About fifty yards (45.72 metres) below the
falls a flight of twenty-three steps, some of which seem to be of great
age, lead down to the river. Above the fall the river stretches in a
long pool with a fine mango-grove on the north bank and the peaks of
the Ramsej hills showing behind, On the left, flights of steps, most
of them rock-cut, lead to two rest-houses, one of brick, the other of
stone, Both are in the Muhammedan style each with five waving edged
arches fronting the river. The steps and the rest-houses were built
by Gopikabai, the mother of Madhavrav, the fourth Peshva (1761-1772).
On the bank behind the rest-houses was the large
dam: About two miles (3.41
km.) up on the confluence of the Godavari and the Kashyapi is built
the Gangapur earthen dam which would irrigate a total of 64,000 acres
(25,899.90 hectares) of land in
Burial mound: About five hundred yards (457.40 metres) southeast of the water-fall and about two hundred yards (182.88 metres) north-east of the Nasik-Govardhan road near the sixth mile-stone, in a large mango garden, is a smooth conical mound of earth twenty-six feet (7.62 metres) high with a few bushes on its sides and an oldish tamarind tree on its top. The base which is not quite round is 624 feet (190.19 metres) in circumference. Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji, who examined the mound in February, 1883, sunk a shaft about ten square feet (0.929 metres2) from top to bottom. For the first six feet (1.82 metres) there was deposit of black clay; the next five and a half feet (1.67 metres) were of black clay mixed with, lime or Kankar : the next six feet (2.13 metres) which reached to the bottom were of yellow-black clay mixed with black clay. At the bottom of the last seven feet (2.13 metres), on a four-inch layer of river sand, were arranged in a circle nine rough trap boulders varying in size from 1' to 1'9" (0.304 to 0.533 metre) high. Of the nine boulders eight were roughly in a circle, The ninth on the south diverged from the circle and on examination showed that in the south of the circle the boulders were unusually far apart. The diameter of the circle from without was about 4' (1.219 metres) and from within 2'5" (0.736 metre). In the middle of the boulders was small red clay pot containing burnt human bones, which on medical examination proved to be the banes of a child about seven years old. With the bones was a damaged bead of coral or some other stone. Over the red clay pot was a covering or screen of clay pierced with many holes. Round the middle pot clay broken pieces of seven or eight other clay pots joined together by a wet and sticky cement of soft black clay. This clay deposit rose about seven feet (2.13 metres) above the pots, and as it had shrunk in drying the pots were all broken and the pieces clung so tightly to the clay that it was not possible to free a single pot entire, Of the contents of these pots there was no trace. . They had probably held water, curds, milk and offerings which had disappeared in the course of time.
Temple: About a quarter of
a mile to the east of the mound, and about five and a half miles (8.84
km.) west of Nasik is a hollow, shaded by some babhul and one
or two large mango and tamarind trees, is an old temple of Someshvara.
Fairs attended by a large number of people from
Fort, 6.43 km. (four miles) west of Trimbak and 1,120.44 metres (3,676
feet) above sea-level, was one of the forts in the possession of the
Ahmadnagar Sultans. It was visited by Captain Briggs in 1818, who has
left a fairly detailed description of the fort. It is tolerably easy
of access till half way up, where several paths from the foot of the
hill unite and where there is a reservoir and some wells, as also some
houses for the garrison. The houses are no longer in existence. The
real ascent to the scarp begins here and has been described by Captain
Briggs as truly wonderful. He further states that words would not be
able to give an idea of its dreadful steepness. It is perfectly straight
for about 60.96 metres (200 feet) and can only be compared to a ladder
up a wall 60.96 metres (200 feet) high. The steps are bad and broken
at places and hence holes are cut in the rock to support the hands.
At the top of the steps is a door, now partially dilapidated, and then
a walk under a rock-cut gallery with no wall along the outer edge. After
the gallery there is the second flight of stairs, worse than the first,
and at the top of trap-door with only enough room to crawl through.
Then there are two more gates. Captain Briggs adds that so difficult
was the hill to climb that only five men could hold it against any adds.
He noticed a well-built bomb-proof for powder. The grain and provisions
were kept in a thatched house. In 1636 Harish with Trimbak, Tringalvadi
and a few other
Fort, near Mulher and almost on the edge of the Sahyadris, stands overlooking
the Surgana taluka and the southern Dangs. It occupies a flat-topped
hill which rises some 183 metres (600 feet) above the plain, and about
1,097.28 metres (3,600 feet) above sea-level. At its foot lies the
ascent to the fart is through a narrow passage cut in the rock, provided
with steps; It was defended by four gates which have fallen into ruins
to-day. Most of the passage is roofed. Below the natural scarp the hill-side
is pleasantly and thickly wooded. The path climbs through the woods,
and, after passing under one or two small ruined gateways, enters the
rock and runs underground for a few yards. As the natural scarp is not
very perfect a masonry wall has been run completely round the upper
plateau. The wall is now in disrepair. The plateau, which is not very
large, is covered with ruins of buildings and with reservoirs. Two of
the reservoirs, called Jamna and
Forts, of which there are thirty-eight in the
the forts of the Chandor or Ajanta range of hills, Lieutenant Lake
wrote in 1820: 'A series of basalt hills joined to each other by low
narrow necks rise sharply from 600 to 1,100 feet (182.88 to 335.28 metres)
from the plain, and end in level plateaus. In some cases on these level
tops stand sheer bluff rocks 80 to 100 feet (24.38 to 30.48 metres)
high. The belts of basalt in the sides and the blocks of rock on the
top are often as beautifully and regularly scarped as if they had been
smoothed by the chisel. Cisterns to hold water, flights of steps hewn
in the solid rock, and a number of ingeniously intricate gateways, are
often the only signs of artificial strengthening. Nothing but a determined
garrison is necessary to make these positions impregnable. This strange
line of almost inaccessible fortresses, stand like giant sentinels athwart
the northern invader's' path, and tell him what he will have to meet
as he penetrates south to the
History: Of the origin of these forts there is no authentic history. Report ascribes the construction of most of them to Shivaji, but some existed before his time and were the work of the early Hindu rulers. During the Moghal ascendancy the Muhammedans became masters of the forts, and have left traces of their handiwork in Saracenic arches, inscriptions and tombs. One tomb bearing the name of a commandant stands on the small fort of Kachna to the east of Dhodap, and between it and the Bhumbari pass leading from Chandor to Satana. The system of fortification varied according to the nature of the hill and rock. When the summit was naturally scarped, as it is in many places, only means of access were required, and this was attained by cutting through the rock steps, sometimes straight, sometimes winding, sometimes tunnel-wise. The upper part would be defended by a, gateway possibly flanked by side bastions. When nature had not done enough to insure security from assault, the upper portions of the rock face would be cut and scarped, so as to make it unscaleable, and where a hill comprised more than one portion or where there might be a plateau which it was desirable to defend, lines of wall were added with gates and bastions at intervals, such as would be proof against the assault of undisciplined warriors. Many of the works show great power of design and in places attempts at ornamentation. They must have been most effective for the purposes for which they were constructed. It is probable that within the inner lines buildings of some sort were erected as a protection from the weather, but of these few remains are left, and in most cases all traces have vanished. The only monuments of the past that remain, intact in some cases, dilapidated in others, are rock cisterns for holding water. These, which are generally on the summits, would be fed by the abundant rains that fall on the hill-tops, and to this day afford an excellent supply of apparently good water. No doubt, also, there existed in former days granaries for storing grain. Firewood would probably be stacked in the open. Some of the forts were undoubtedly armed with artillery, and old guns remain on the Chauler fort in Baglana; the walls, too, were pierced or loop-holed for the use of matchlocks. The present ruinous state of these old forts is no doubt to a great extent due to the action of the British Government. Up to the close of the eighteenth century it is probable that most of them were intact and fit for occupation and defence. On the close of the long series of wars in 1818, most of those that fell into the hands of the British were dismantled. Their armaments were removed, and the walls where necessary were blown up. Since then the recurring storms of the rainy season have completed the work of destruction, and year by year their disintegration goes on. It would be hopeless to attempt to restore them. But as relics of a past age and a system gone by, they will ever be interesting even to the most prosaic and careless of observers. Mulher and Salher stand first in point of height and size and extent of fortifications. Ankai- Tankai is perhaps the best preserved, while Dhodap and Chauler are interesting from the greater intricacy of the approaches and fortifications. In many cases the handiwork of man has disappeared. But all repay ascent if only for the crisp breeze that blows over their tops and the varied hill-views which they command.
a municipal town of 17,415 inhabitants as per the 1971 Census, is the
headquarters of the taluka of the same name lying 48.28 km. (30 miles)
Municipality: The municipality here was established in 1868. The town-limits extend over an area of 11.36 square kilometres (4 square miles) which is also the area of municipal jurisdiction. An elected council of 16 members presided over by a president looks after the municipal affairs.
Finance: In 1964-65 the total municipal income derived from various sources amounted to Rs. 2,41,716. It comprised rates and taxes Rs. 1,36,597; revenue derived from municipal property and powers apart from taxation Rs. 50,176; grants and contributions Rs. 47,661 and miscellaneous Rs. 7,282. During the same year it incurred an expenditure of Rs. 1,94,575. The expenditure comprised general administration and collection charges Rs. 39,434; public safety Rs. 4,238; public health and convenience Rs. 1,10,735; public instruction Rs. 25,419; contributions Rs. 35 and miscellaneous Rs. 17,714. A sum of Rs. 1,24,571 was also spent on the provision of water to the populace.
sanitation and water-supply: The
town has a primary health centre, a civil dispensary conducted by the
municipality and a hospital named as
Municipal Works: The municipality has provided one vegetable market with thirteen stalls one each for beef and mutton with eight and ten stalls respectively and a general market with seventeen stalls. There is also a market with thirteen stalls and a separate shed for selling dry and fresh fish. Two separate slaughter-houses for beef and mutton have been provided. A morgue belonging to the Buildings and Communications department is utilised by the municipal dispensary for carrying out post-mortems.
Primary education is compulsory
in the town and is conducted by the Zilla Parishad. Towards this end
the municipality contributes 5 per cent of the annual letting value
which comes to about Rs. 18,000. There is only one high school receiving
an annual grant of Rs. 1,300 from the town municipality. A convent school
teaching upto the fourth standard is managed by a
and Burial Places: Two cremation
and two burial grounds are maintained by the municipality for Hindus.
position of Igatpuri at the top of the Thal pass about 607 metres (1,992
feet) above sea-level and its cool and bracing climate makes it an excellent
health resort during April and May. It was much improved by a reservoir
built by the railways to supply water to Kasara and Igatpuri at the
foot of the Thal pass and which now belongs to the Central Railway.
This is the very reservoir from which a part of the Igatpuri town gets
its water. The reservoir with beautiful surroundings is situated at
the foot of the Pardevi Khind about half a mile (0.804 km.) north-east
of Igatpuri. The railway employees have formed a boat club which owns
one boat. Igatpuri has an
Apart from the Mamlatdar's office, Igatpuri has the offices of the panchayat samiti, soil conservation, superintendent of cattle breeding, judicial magistrate's court, etc. It has post and telegraph and telephone exchange facilities. There is also a police station. Igatpuri rice is well known all over the district. It is also the principal agricultural produce market. In the Agricultural Research Centre here, research is undertaken in paddy crops. There are some rice mills also. Pimpri which adjoins Igatpuri, on the south, has the tomb of Sadr-ud-din, a great Musalman saint of local repute. Three miles (4.82 km.) on, to the north is the Tringalvadi with some cave temples in the fort. Panthers and nilgais are occasionally seen in the forests of Igatpuri as also to the north of the Mahalungi hill that forms a notable landmark above the railway reservoir.
1827 Captain Clunes noticed Igatpuri as being on this high road from
Indrai, also known as Indragiri fort, 4,526 feet (1,379.52 metres) above the sea and lying 6.43 km. (four miles) northwest of Chandor on the Roura pass, is a small tower which was dismantled by Captain Mackintosh in 1818. The approach to the fort is difficult. The only object of interest on the hill are some caves and sculptures. These caves have fallen into decay due to lack of care and are used by the shepherds. Cattle also resort to these caves during the rains. Below the foot of the steps leading to the rock is a Persian inscription. Time has rendered the inscription almost illegible. In the 1818 campaign, the burning of the neighbouring fort of Rajdhair so terrified the garrison that they abandoned the fort without a struggle.
lying 24 km. (15 miles) north of Satana in Baglan taluka, was previously
the headquarters of an old petty division. Its population in 1971 was
4,103. There is much garden land around, irrigated by a second class
bandhara across Mosam river and 40 irrigation wells. Sugarcane
is the principal crop. Some fine mango-groves are also seen around the
village. Drinking water is drawn from the Mosam river and a few private
wells. The village has a primary school, a high school, a police station,
a post office and the grampanchayat which has laid a kachcha
drainage system. There is, however, no dispensary and hence the
people depend upon the one in the nearby
Jambutke, with a population of 1,002 in 1971, is a village in Dindori taluka lying 6.43 km. (four miles) west of it and having a plain Hemadpanti well 4.180 square metres (forty-five square feet). To-day the well is not only silted up but the construction also is lying amidst ruins. About 1.60 km. (one mile) south of the village a tank has been constructed by the Zilla Parishad. But for the ruins of this antique well the village is insignificant.
Kachna Fart, about 3.21 km. (two miles) west of Koledhair and 16 km. (ten miles) north-west of Chandor in the Chandor range, is described by Captain Briggs who visited it in 1818, as a large hill and much steeper than the neighbouring fort of Koledhair. The road to it lies from the north and from that road a bad pass to Gangathadi leads up to the fort. Captain Briggs noticed a wall of loose stones, with a small opening in the middle which could be filled in no time, as running across nearly the whole breadth of the pass and enabling a handful of men to, defend the pass. To-day, however, nothing except ruins remain to point out the existence of the wall. The fortifications on the hill-top are also lying amidst ruins. There is, however, plenty of water and the rock-cut rooms which must have served as granaries are now frequented by cattle. When Captain Briggs visited the fort there were seven of the Peshva's militia in the fort. Kachna was one of the seventeen strong places that surrendered to the British after the fall of Trimbak in 1818.
the highest peak in the
hill falls very abruptly on three sides. On the fourth, that is the
south side, there are numerous pathways cut by grass-cutters and the
visitors to the temple. There is also a road up the hill from
is worshipped at two places, one half wav up and the other on
the hill-top. Many Kolis consider the goddess as their household deity
and worship Her with the fervent belief that She favours those who make
a vow to Her in cases of trouble and difficulty. The
1860 Archdeacon wrote the following account after his visit to Kalsubai:
"During the night I mounted this king of the
the taluka headquarters with 7,546 inhabitants in 1971 and lying 56.37
km. (35 miles) west of
Kanhira Fort, 11.26 km. (seven miles) north-west of Dhodap, is in the Chandor range. In 1818 Captain Briggs described it as having scarcely anything that could be described as a well. Its only defence is its height and the steep ascent. The overhanging nature of the hill affords cover to an attacking force. The fort has a good supply of water from the reservoirs and there are a few rock-cut stone-houses. Captain Briggs reports that there were seven of the Peshva’s militia in the fort. Kanhira was one of the seventeen strong places which surrendered to the British after the fall of Trimbak in 1818. About two kilometres away is the small hamlet of Kanhervadi
Fort lies 19.31 km. (12 miles)
Kantra Fort lies about 6.41 km. (four miles) distant from Ankai. The hill on which it stands is lower than the others near it and is entirely commanded by one about a thousand yards (944.40 metres) distant. In 1818 Captain Briggs found the ascent to the for fairly easy, the entrance being by a bad gate about six feet (1.8 metres) wide. There was plenty of water and a small place cut out of the rock served as a store-house for grain and ammunition. Near the gateway but outside the fort was another rock-cut room useless as a military store-house on account of the fire that could be brought to bear upon it from below. It was probably one of the forts captured by Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah. To-day the gate lies amidst ruins and one finds hardly any supply of water except during the rains.
Kavanai, a small settlement at the foot of the fort of the same name in Igatpuri taluka lying 16 km. (10 miles) north of Igatpuri, is chiefly inhabited by the Marathas, Kolis and Thakurs, with a sprinkling of Gujarat Osval Vanis. The Gujarat Osval Vanis are originally from Viramgam to which they still pay occasional visits. In 1971 the total population was 1,450. The chief crops grown are wheat and paddy. There is a post office, a primary school and a subsidised medical practitioner.
The only object of interest
is the historic fort of Kavanai which is said to have been built by
the Moghals. It was ceded to the Peshva by the Nizam under the
terms of the treaty concluded after the battle of Udgir (1760). When
the Marathas were defeated at Trimbak in 1818. Kavanai like Tringalvadi
and fifteen other neighbouring forts fell without resistance to the
British. Captain Briggs who visited it after its surrender found two
houses at the foot of the hill where the garrison lived. The ascent
is easy till the scarp is reached. The scarp, though not high, is nearly
perpendicular and is climbed by bad rock-cut steps. There is only one
entrance gate which is fairly in a good condition. The top of the fort
is small, but it has ample water-supply. There were good houses for
the garrison of which now only fragments remain. The foot of the hill
on the north is comparatively well clothed with trees, chiefly an inferior
description of mangoes. At the foot of the hill is the seat of sage
Kapila and Kapildhara tirtha. There is a ruined
Koledhair Fort on the Chandor range, about 6.43 km. (four miles) west of Rajdhair fort and 11.26 km. (seven miles) north-west of Chandor, was described by Captain Briggs, who visited it in 1818, as a poor stronghold, hardly deserving the name of a fort. It is large but easy of ascent. The wall and the door which Captain Briggs mentions in his report have fallen into decay. There are, however, good rock-cut granaries and store-houses. The water-supply is deficient. When Captain Briggs visited the fort he found seven of the Peshva’s militia in the fort. Koledhair was one of the seventeen strong places that surrendered to the British after the fall of Trimbak in 1818.
with 2,561 inhabitants in 1971, is a village in Niphad taluka 4.82 km.
(three miles) south of Niphad, the latter of which is a railway station
on the Bombay-Nagpur section of the central Railway. It has an antique
and Alang on the Ahmadnagar frontier about 16 km. (ten miles) south-east
of Igatpuri station, are two miles (3.21 km.) distant from each other;
Alang being almost entirely in the Ahmadnagar district. Their tops
are inaccessible, the old way of approach having been destroyed. The
two blocks are separated by the smaller mass of Madangad which was also
rendered inaccessible, probably in 1818, by the destruction of the rough
staircase leading to it through a cleft in the almost perpendicular
rock. Though Alang can be climbed, the path is not only difficult but
dangerous at places. The crags in this range are perhaps the steepest
and hardly afford foothold for any but the smallest brushwood. Under
strict conservancy the ledges between the chief scarps show better growth.
Badshaha Nama states that Khvaja Abul Hasan who was sent to reduce
with a population of 6,855 persons in 1971, is a rapidly-growing town
in Niphad taluka, situated 19.31 km. (12 miles) north-west of Niphad.
It is an important station on the Bombay-Nagpur line of the Central
Railway and one of the chief centres of onion marketing in the district.
Wheat and bajra are the other important crops grown. There is
an agricultural produce market committee, a Kharedi-Vikri Sangh and
branches of State Bank and the District Central Co-operative Bank. Besides
the primary schools, there are three high schools, one of which is conducted
by a Church mission where English is the medium of instruction. To one
of these high schools, viz., the Mahavir Jain Vidyalaya, two
play-grounds are attached. The village panchayat maintains a
library and has built a bandhara for the provision of potable
water. Medical needs of the inhabitants are met by a civil dispensary
with a maternity home attached to it and some two private nursing homes.
There is also a veterinary sub-centre. The town has postal and telephone
facilities and a community hall. Of the places of worship the
situated in north latitude 20°32' and east longitude 74°35', lies on
the Bombay-Agra road about 247.83 km. (154 miles) north-east of Bombay
and 38.62 km. (24 miles) northeast of Manmad, an important railway
junction on the Bombay-Nagpur cord of the Central Railway. It stands
on level ground on the left bank of the Mosam, which unites with the
Girna down-town. About 29 km. (18 miles) east of the town on the borders
consists of three distinct parts, viz., the older quarter or
the city, the camp area or the cantonment included in the municipal
limits since the abolition of the contingents stationed here, and the
village of Sangameshvar lying across on the left bank of the Mosam and
connected with the rest of the town by a causeway built across the river.
Malegaon is the headquarters of Malegaon sub-division placed in charge
of a sub-divisional officer, and besides the usual revenue offices including
that of the Mamlatdar, it has a panchayat samiti, civil and judicial
courts, deputy engineers for irrigation, and buildings and communications
respectively, soil conservation officer, range forest and a hast of
other offices. It is also the headquarters of sub-divisional police
officer and has three police stations within the city-limits.
Finance: In 1964-65 the municipal income from normal sources was Rs. 44,58,482. Income from extra-ordinary and debt heads and which has not been included in the above figure stood at Rs. 7,84,232. The normal sources of income comprised municipal rates and taxes contributing Rs. 31,93,473; revenue derived from municipal property and powers apart from taxation Rs. 1,86,857; grants and contributions for special and general purposes Rs. 8,88,385 and miscellaneous Rs. 1,89,767. Expenditure during the same year amounted to Rs. 38,69,543. The expenditure figure likewise excludes a sum of Rs. 13,31,003 incurred under extra-ordinary and debt heads. The expenditure heads were general administration and collection charges Rs. 3,66,652; public safety Rs. 2,11,162; public health and convenience Rs. 8,59,939 and miscellaneous Rs. 2,36,452.
Municipal Works: Municipal Works include it vegetable market and a causeway across the Mosam connecting Sangameshvar with the main part of the town. These works cost the municipality a total of Rs. 1,97,000. While the market was completed: in 1964, the causeway was built in 1953. Apart from the building housing the municipal offices, it has constructed ten school buildings at a considerable cost. A hundred-bed hospital is now under construction.
Health and sanitation: Since the establishment of the first dispensary in 1869 to cater to the medical needs of the populace, the municipality has considerably extended its activities in this sphere. Not only the old dispensary has been expanded but two new dispensaries have been added providing facilities for treatment to even T. B. patients. In times of epidemics besides inoculating and vaccinating campaigns, a temporary isolation hospital is also set up and all measures are taken to localise the outbreak on the advice of the public health officer of the Zilla Parishad. Propaganda is also launched to educate the people on the necessity of taking vaccinations and inoculations.
consist of only stone-lined open gutters and the refuse is allowed to
flow in the Mosam just below the town. Public Health Works Division,
Primary education is compulsory.
There are nearly fifty-three primary and middle schools in
Cremation and burial places are maintained and used by the concerned communities. A modestly-equipped fire-brigade is maintained by the municipality. The town has twelve parks, five cinema theatres and a Score of local clubs.
The height of the inner wall to the parapet was sixty feet (18.29 metres), the thickness of the parapet at top was six feet (1.82 metres), and the breadth of the terreplein or rampart top eleven feet (3.35 metres), making the total thickness of the rampart at top seventeen feet (5.18 metres). The breadth of the space between the body of the fort and the middle line, on part of the north and on the west and south sides, was about forty feet (12.91 metres), of which about ten were appropriated to stabling. The roof of these stables, which was ten feet (3.04 metres) high, formed the top or terreplein of the middle line, and was surmounted by a parapet of five feet (1.52 metres). Thus the middle line was fifteen feet (4.57 metres) high from within, but outside the scarp of the work was forty feet (12.19 metres) in extreme height, including the depth of the ditch, which for the greater part was cut out of the solid rock, immediately below the scarped face of the middle line, without an intervening level space or berm. The facing or revetment was five feet (1.52 metres) thick. The width of the ditch was twenty-five feet (7.62 metres); its depth varied, but was the greatest on the river front where it was twenty-five feet (7.62 metres), The space between the outer slope of the ditch or counter-scarp and the exterior line of works varied; it was least on the west, where it was only sixty feet (18.28 metres), and the greatest on the east, where it was 300 feet (91.44 metres) wide, The height of the outer line of works was fourteen or fifteen feet (4.26 to 4.57 metres), the thickness of the parapet being three feet (9.914 metre) and that of its ramparts varying from ten feet (3.04 metres) an the west and south sides to fourteen feet (4.26 metres) on the east side of the fort.
The gateways were nine in number, very intricate and containing excellent bomb-proofs, The outer ones were on the north, the inner ones on the eastern side, The fortress was much weakened on the east by the town which stretched to within close musket shot of the outer line of works, and contained a great many and lofty buildings, Besides the disadvantage of the town running so close to the works, the defences of the fort were impaired by the village of Sangameshvar on the left of the river, nearly apposite the outer gate of the fort, which communicated with the town, A thick grove of mango-trees, 400 yards (365.76 metres) deep, also ran along the left bank of the river opposite to the south-west angle.
the reduction of the Peshva's territory a considerable force
was kept with its headquarters at
is a ruined uninhabited fort, 9.65 km. (six miles) south of Nandgaon
and about 3.21 km, (two miles) northwest of the Kasarbari pass. Captain
Briggs who visited the fort in 1818 describes it as a very low hill
with an easy ascent. He noticed two miserable, looking gates and a bad
wall running round the hill except for a space of about forty yards
(36.47 metres), where the scarp was steep enough not to require fortifications,
The wall as well as the gates are in ruins now. A large unfortified
rock rose out of the middle of the fort, and filled the whole space,
except a road of about fifteen paces all round between it and the wall.
The water-supply was ample and continues to be so, in 1827 Clunes notes
that Manikpunj fort was abandoned. In 1862 it was described as a natural
stronghold provided with cisterns, Here is located the
is a rapidly-expanding municipal town in Nandgaon taluka, lying 72.42
km, (forty-five miles) north-east of Nasik, In 1971 the municipality
had an area of 20.42 square kilometres (7.5 square miles) under its
control with 29,571 persons residing within its limits. The town once
belonged to the Vinchurkar family. Manmad is one of the most important
junctions on the Bombay-Nagpur section of the Central Railway, from
where two lines branch off towards
Markinda, a hill-fort in Kalvan, 4,384 feet (1,336.28 metres) above sea-level, stands opposite the sacred hill of Saptashring or Chatarsingi. Captain Briggs, who visited Markinda in 1818, described it as a small barren rock rising out of a flat hill. It faces the Ravlya-Javlya hill, and between the two, over a low neck of hill, runs the pass leading from. Kalvan to Khandesh. From this pass two roads strike in opposite directions, one to Markinda and the other to Ravlya-Javlya. The ascent to the fort is very difficult. At the top is a door and a wall both in ruins. The water-supply is ample, but the fort never had a place for storing guns except thatched houses. There is a peak on a tableland on the top, and to the south of it is a pond near an umbar tree called Kotitirtha. It is also known as Ramkunda. People come in large numbers to bathe here on no-moon Mondays or Somvati amavasyas. There is another pool or tirtha on the summit called Kamandalu or the waterpot, which is said to have been built by the Moghals. East of Kamandalu are two underground magazines or granaries. To the west of the magazines is a perennial reservoir with excellent water called Motitanki. The old name of the hill is Mayur Khandi or the Peacock's Hill. The resemblance of sound has given rise to a local story that the hill is called after the sage Markandeya who lived on it and persuaded Devi to punish Bhimasur and other demons who were attacking Brahman recluses. Under the name Mayur Khandi, Markinda appears as the place from where several grants were issued by the Rashtrakuta king Govinda III. If not a Rashtrakuta capital, it must have been an out-post or at least a place of occasional residence [Ind. Ant, VI 64; Dr. Burgess' Bidar and Aurangabad, 32.]. Under the Peshvas a garrison was kept on the hill. The hill-slopes used to be cultivated in olden days.
Mulher Fort in Satana, on a hill about two miles (3.21 km.) south of the Mulher town and 2,000 feet (609.60 metres) above the plain, lies at the head of the Mosam valley about forty miles (64.37 km.) north-west of Malegaon. The hill is half detached from a range which rises westwards till it culminates in Sather about twelve miles (19.31 km.) further west, The hill has three fortified peaks near one another, Mulher in the middle, Mora to the east, and Hatgad to the west.
Mulher, the strongest of the three, and known as Bale Killa or the citadel, is about half a mile in extent. About half way up, after passing three gateways, comes a rolling plateau with the ruins of what must have been a considerable town. There are still some houses, a mosque and some cisterns and reservoirs. The whole plateau is beautifully wooded chiefly with mangoes and banyans. It is defended by a masonry wall which runs along the edge of the lower slope and at each end is carried to the foot of the upper scarp which is about 100 feet (30.48 metres) high. The upper scarp is approached through the usual succession of gateways. The further ascent is undefended until an angle is reached in the natural scarp above, and the crevice leading thence to the plateau above the scarp is defended by a succession of gateways now more or less ruined. The point of the plateau thus reached is nearly at the western end of the western-most of the two plateaus of which the hill-top is formed. There is a more prominent angle and crevice nearer the middle of the hill-top, but the top of this crevice has been closed by a solid masonry wall, which also forms a connection between the two portions of the plateau which are at this point separated by a dip of some fifty to a hundred feet (15.24 to 30.48 metres).
half of the plateau is slightly higher than the west half, and is defended
at the point just mentioned by walls and gateways, which make the eastern
part a citadel or inner place of defence. Near the third gate are three
guns known as Fateh-i-lashkar, Ramprasad, and Shivprasad,
each seven feet long. There was a fourth gun called Markandeya
Toph which the British Government is said to have broken and sold.
On the flat top inside the fort are the ruins of a large court-house,
According to a local story,
during the time of the Pandavas, Mulher fort was held by two brothers,
Mayuradhvaja and Tamradhvaja. The first historical reference is in the
Tarikh-i-Firozshahi, which says that about 1340, the mountains
of Mulher and Salher were held by a chief named Mandev. The next mention
of Mulher is in the Ain-i-Akbari (1590) which notices Mulher
and Salher as places of strength in Baglan. In 1609 the chief of Mulher
and Salher furnished 3,000 men towards the force that was posted at
Ramnagar in Dharampur to guard
Nampur, 24 km. (fifteen miles) north-east of Satana in Baglan, is situated on the Mosam and produces abundant crops of sugarcane, cotton, rice and groundnut. In fact it is an important market for cotton and corn and has ginning and oil-expelling mills. The weekly market held on Mondays is largely attended, The village has a post office, a dispensary, a primary school and a high school. There is a rest-house too. It is connected with the taluka headquarters by S. T. bus service. Nampur was a stronghold of the freedom-fighters in the 1930-1932 Civil Disobedience Movement that swept the entire country. On Magha Paurnima, a fair is held in honour of Mahalakshmi.
the headquarters of the taluka of the same name, with in 1971 a population
of 15,885, is a railway station on the Bombay-Bhusaval section of the
Central Railway. It is a municipal town lying 96.56 km. (sixty miles)
Being the headquarters of a taluka the town has the offices of the Mamlatdar, the panchayat samiti, range forest officer and a score of other Government offices. Due to the Girna project, offices of the Executive Engineer, Girna project, and a special sub-divisional soil conservation office have been set up here. The town has civil and judicial courts, a police station, and post and telegraph. During the harvesting season the Nandgaon market-yard handles large quantities of grains and cereals. There are two saw mills, two ginning factories and a milk dairy. The town has also banking facilities, and co-operatives in various fields.
Municipality: Established in 1922, the Nandgaon municipality has an area of 40.76 square kilometres (19.6 square miles) under its jurisdiction. The committee composed of 19 councillors is headed by a president who is elected by the councillors from among themselves. With the assistance of the necessary staff, the committee carries on the municipal administration.
Finance: Municipal income in 1964-65 derived from municipal rates and taxes and other sources, but excluding extra-ordinary and debt heads, amounted to Rs. 3,63,990. Extra-ordinary and debt heads brought in an income of Rs. 1,10,475. Expenditure during the same year incurred due to general administration and collection, public health, safety, convenience and instruction but excluding extra-ordinary and debt heads stood at Rs. 3,28,644. Extra-ordinary and debt heads accounted for Rs. 1,34,040.
Health, sanitation and water-supply: The town has a public civil dispensary conducted by the municipality and a veterinary dispensary maintained by the Zilla Parishad. The charges for treatment are nominal in these dispensaries. There are also five private medical practitioners in the town. Drainage system consists of only open stone-lined gutters with cess-pools to collect the sullage. Scavengers are employed to remove it out of the town. For water-supply the inhabitants depend upon wells, private and municipal.
Education: Primary education is compulsory. It is placed in charge of the Zilla Parishad. The municipal contribution towards the enforcement of this amounts to 5 per cent of the rateable value which came to Rs. 15,724 in 1964-65. Besides six primary schools, the town has two privately conducted high schools and a training college. There are three libraries of which one is maintained by the railway employees. One of these libraries receives an annual municipal grant of Rs. 300.
Cremation and burial places are maintained and used by the communities concerned. Of late provision has been made for holding daily and weekly markets. Weekly bazar is held on Thursdays.
Objects: Nandgaon has five mosques of which the Jumma masjid is the largest and the most important. It is said to be nearly half-a-century old. There are temples dedicated to Ekvira goddess and Parshvanatha. The Ekvira temple with a 1.52 x 1.52 metres (5' X 5') mandap and 3.65 X 3.65 metres (12' X 12') gabhara is reported to be nearly 200 years old. An eighteen-handed image of the goddess occupies a central position in the gabhara. There is a dipmal in the court-yard and a homakunda in the mandap. Ekvira is the village deity or the gramadaivata of Nandgaon. A fair is held in Her honour on Chaitra Shuddha 15. It is attended by a little over 2,500 persons. Located near the Malegaon Vesh, the Parshvanatha temple is a Jain place of worship. It is a double-storeyed building with a spacious sabhamandap richly ornamented with carved arches and other designs. Near the main entrance there are two elephant figures in a sitting posture. In Bhadrapada, celebrations are held on a lavish scale. There is a marble manastambha about 10.97 metres (36 feet) in height. The town has also a dargah known as Ammacha dargah.
Madhmeshvar, with in 1971 a population of 2,228, is an agriculturally
important village in Niphad taluka, lying 9.65 km. (six miles) south
of Niphad near the confluence of the Godavari and the Kadva. Near here
a large bandhara has been built on the Godavari which has not
only facilitated irrigation in
on a small rocky islet is a
From the railway station
the road passes north-west with its sides flanked by inhabited colonies
and residential quarters, various industrial units and their offices,
including Government of India Security Press and the quarters of its
staff. There is also an air-strip along this road. A few cultivated
patches could also be seen here and there. About three miles (4.82 km.)
to the west is a group of steep bare hills, the eastern end of the Anjaneri-Trimbak
range. In a low scarp that runs along the north face of the pointed
hill farthest to the east are the Pandu Caves, a group of old (B. C.
200/ A. D. 600) Buddhist caves, important for inscriptions. To the north
of the station the ground rises slightly and the soil grows poorer.
In the distance about ten miles (16 km.) to the north is the rough picturesque
group of the Bhorgad-Ramsej hills with the sharp cone of the Chambhar
cave hill closer at hand to the right and on a clear day behind the
Chambhar cave hill the rugged broken line of the Chandor range stretching
far to the east can also be seen. About a mile from
The town of
Marathi proverb that
the site of the main bazar remains the same the Collector's and allied
offices have been housed along the diverted
The best general view of
the river crowded with bathers and city of
with the east, the first hill is the Juni Gadhi or Old Fort [To-day
the position does not remain the same as the fort is lying amidst ruins.], an alluvial mound seventy or eighty
feet (21.33 to 24.38 metres) high and 410 feet long by 320 feet (124.96
X 97.23 metres) broad, of which some fifteen to twenty feet (4.57 to
6.09 metres) on the top seem to be artificial. The north side, which
overhangs the river, is steep and to the east, south and west deep gullies
cut it off from the rest of the town. Except a ruined mosque no trace
of its buildings remains. The second hill lies to the south-west of
Old Fort. It is known as the New Fort or Navi Gadhi and was the
site of the Musalman Courthouse and of several large mansions. Except
a fine banyan tree and an old cistern almost no trace of the old buildings
remains. Deep hollows mark off the New Fort on the north, the east and
the south. To the west the ground is on the same level as its flat top.
The high ground ends southward in the Pathanpura quarter is a
small hill called Konkani pura or East Konkani Hill. Further
west it forms the Jogvada Tek or Jogis' Hill which is
now divided into two parts, Jogvada in the south and Dargah
to the north, both of which according to local accounts, were included
in the early Hindu Jogis' hill. The high central land ends towards
the west in Mhasrul Hill, perhaps in Musalman times the brocade or mashru
weavers' hill, now believed to be called after the god Mhasoba but
the shrine is modern. The height to the east of the Mhasrul hill is
Dingar Ali Hill, which passes eastwards into the high level of
the west of the New Fort. Between Dingar Ali Hill and the New
Fort the high central plateau ends northward, over the river in two
hills: Mahalakshmi Hill also called Jumma mosque Hill or Sonar Ali
Hill on the east, and Ganapati's Hill on the west. The ninth hill
is an isolated steep height on the river-bank closely covered with houses,
a considerable distance to the north of Ganapati's hill and between
the Nav gate and the
drainage: The natural drainage
of the town of Nasik is north and north-east to the Godavari; east and
south-east to the Nagjhari, which winds round the town to the south
and east and joins the Godavari, and west and north-west into the Sarasvati,
which skirts the west and north-west of the town and falls into the
Godavari near the Delhi gate. The Maratha suburb or pura, except
a little in the north which drains into the
Houses: The 1971 Census returns show 32,165 households. Most of the houses have upper storeys and many of the old ones have stone foundations with brick or mud walls and tiled roofs. The modern houses inhabited by the well-to-do or the richer section of the population are of cement-concrete or burnt brick walls plastered with either cement or chunam and have mostly terraced roofs instead of tiled ones. Most of them again are two or three storeyed. In the poorer parts the roofs are generally covered with dark flat tiles, in houses of the better class the pot tiles are used. In Aditvar peth and some other portions are the houses of the Maratha gentry including the new and old Peshva's palaces [It may be noted that Peshva’s old palace has been demolished. The new palace survives only with one storey and is used to house the general public library and two police stations.]. Most of these houses present a dead wall to the street and are built on revised stone-plinths approached by steps. Inside they enclose a paved court-yard open to the sky and admitting light and air to all parts of the building. An open corridor usually runs around the quadrangle on the ground floor which is generally used as servants' quarters, part of it being sometimes walled off as a stable. On the upper floor sleeping and living rooms open into the corridor which looks into the quadrangle.
chief point of interest in a considerable number of the old houses in
a few carved house-fronts which are worthy of note in Sonar Ali and
in old Tambat Ali there are six chief specimens of wood-carving in
Hingne's mansion is no more in existence, a modern four-storeyed building
having replaced it. It is rumoured that some of the finest wood-work
from this palace was lifted to
From Hingne's mansion Bhadrakali lane leads east about fifty yards to Bhadrakali’s shrine, and from that about a hundred yards further to the Cross of Tiundha.
to the Tiundha cross and passing south about 150 yards up the Dingar
Ali road, on the right or west is Mahadev Thakur's with a handsome balcony
and brackets carved in the lotus, and chain and peacock style. From
Mahadev Thakur's with a winding lane to the east and south-east lead
about 200 yards to Sripat Thakur in Budhvar Peth. This has a double
balcony and pillars on the outer edge of the veranda supporting a wooden
shade. The carving is in the Hindu or
Though it was never a walled
town several of the entrances to
the Maratha suburb (
Its position on the best
route between the
Bi-weekly markets or bazars
are held on Wednesdays and Saturdays, the attendance at the Wednesday
bazar being larger than that held on Saturdays. Except during the rains
when the bazars are held on the south bank of the
from these bi-weekly bazars which are attended by a little over four
thousand persons coming from many of the nearby talukas also, daily
markets are held in several parts of the town. Most of these are held
in the open where the municipality has provided pucca flooring.
A market for vegetables is held daily in Panchavati area a little to
the north of Naro Shankar's temple. It is open from eight to eleven
in the morning and is attended by nearly five hundred persons. The vegetables
sold here are mostly grown in the neighbourhood within a radius of
about eight miles. Pahadis, Marathas and
Municipality: The municipality was established in May 1864 and raised to the status of a city municipality in 1874. To begin with, its office was accommodated in a portion of the old Peshva's palace and later in rented quarters till 1937 in which year was built the spacious building with a clock-tower in which it is housed today. It was constructed at a cost of two lakhs of rupees. Fifty members compose the municipal council which is presided over by the president. He is elected by the councillors from among themselves. It is this council with the president as the head that is responsible for all municipal affairs. The administration is looked after by the Chief Officer who is responsible to the municipal council.
Finance: In 1964-65 the municipal income accrued from various sources including extra-ordinary and debt heads amounted to Rs. 57,44,741. The income sources were municipal rates and taxes contributing Rs. 29,07,486; revenue derived from municipal property and powers Rs. 4,17,274; grants Rs. 8,54,740; miscellaneous Rs. 7,96,050 and extra-ordinary and debt heads Rs. 7,69,191. As against this it incurred an expenditure of Rs. 52,25,678 during the same year. Expenditure items were general administration Rs. 5,43,636; public safety Rs. 2,13,453; public health and convenience Rs. 15,96,099; public works Rs. 45,244; public instruction Rs. 7,95,065; grants and contributions Rs. 1,500; interest on loans Rs. 1,47,922; miscellaneous Rs. 4,52,118; extra-ordinary and debt heads Rs. 8,86,603 and capital expenditure Rs. 5,44,038.
Municipal Works: Besides the markets, bridges and causeways and the main municipal office building which have already been mentioned, the municipality has so far constructed a number of buildings for schools, dispensaries, maternity homes, one open air theatre and a welfare centre at a total cost of Rs. 5,01,900. This expenditure is besides that incurred on laying out drains and improving them from time to time.
aid: Much has been done and
achieved in keeping down the incidence of epidemics in whose throes
In the early days the water-supply
fountain near the Trimbak gate, which goes by the name of Dhondo Mahadev's
haud, was made by a Maratha subhedar or governor of that
name eighty or ninety years ago. Dhondo also built a reservoir about
225 feet from the Nasardi river near the Trimbak road about a mile and
a half west of
In olden days the municipality used to turn nightsoil into manure.
drainage system continued to be in an unsatisfactory condition until
1935. In 1935 the then consulting public health engineer had suggested
an elaborate drainage system to keep the town sufficiently clean and
also to prevent the sullage from entering the kund near the Victoria
bridge which was used by the people for drinking purposes. It, however,
did not materialise until the outbreak of a serious cholera epidemic.
The remarks of the Director of Public Health in 1935 roused the municipality
to action and
Primary education is compulsory
and is conducted by the
Sundar-narayan: Beginning in the north, in Aditvar Peth in New Nasik where the river takes its first bend to the south, on rising ground on the right or west bank about a hundred feet (30.48 metres) above the river-bed, is the temple of Sundar-narayan, It faces east and measures about eighty square feet (7.43 square metres) standing on a stone plinth about three feet (0.914 metre) high. On the east, north and south it is entered by flights of steps each with a richly carved and domed portico with front and side arches in the waving-edged style locally known as the mimbar or Musalman prayer-niche. To the west or shrine end the outside of the temple is rounded. Over the centre of the building is a large dome and behind the dome is a handsome spire. The whole is of beautifully dressed stone and is highly ornamented, especially the main or eastern door which is richly carved with figures, chains, bells, and tracery. In 1848 the central dome was struck by lightning. It was restored in 1858, but some broken ornaments on the north and west show traces of the damage. In the shrine arc three black stone images, a three feet (0.914 metre) high Narayana in the middle flanked on the right and left by smaller images of Lakshmi and Vrinda, wife of the demon Jalandara. Though they are about 50 feet (15.24 metres) from the outer wall and are separated from it by three gates, the building is so arranged that at sunrise on the 20th and 21st of March the sun's rays fall on Narayana's feet. Viewed from the Kapaleshvara shrine which is 1,000 yards (914,44 metres) on the other bank of the river one can see the lamp burning inside this shrine. The temple charges are met and a large number of Brahmans are fed on Karttika Shuddha 14th (November-December) from an annual Government grant. From the east or main entrance a flight of sixty-eight dressed stone-steps leads to the river. Once a year on the Karttika (November-December) full-moon the steps and the temple are brilliantly lighted. Over the east doorway, a marble tablet, with a Devanagari inscription in seven lines of small letters states that the temple was built by Gangadhar Yashvant Chandrachud in 1756. The cost of the temple and flight of steps is said to have been about Rs. 10,00,000. On the spot where the temple stands there is said to have been an old Hindu temple which was destroyed by the Musalmans and the site turned into a kabarastan or burial ground. On the overthrow of the Musalman rule probably about 1750 Peshva Balaji is said to have destroyed the graveyard, cleared the ground of the bones, and sanctified the spot on which the present temple stands.
Sangama: On the river-bank
a few yards north of the flight of steps which leads to Sundar-narayan's
temple, is a shrine of Ganapati, and to the south was a Bairagi's monastery
or math where now stands the office or the Gavkari, a Marathi
daily, published from
Steps: In the bed of the
river, close below the Sundar-narayan stairs, the next flight of steps
are known as Ojha's steps. They were built in 1808 at a cost of about
Rs. 2,000. On the high bank at the top of Ojha's steps, on the north
side, is a temple of Dattatreya and a monastery of Raghunath Bhatji
who, about hundred and sixty years ago, was famous for his power of
curing diseases and controlling the elements. This monastery is much
in disrepair. To the south is a
About seventy yards (64 metres)
south-east of Sundar-narayan's is Uma-maheshvar's temple. It faces east
and is surrounded and hidden by a stone-wall with two small houses in
front which are washed by the river when it is in flood. Within the
wall, in front of the temple, is a large wooden outer hall with a handsomely
carved ceiling. In the shrine in the west, with a passage in front,
are three black marble images about two feet (0.609 metre) high, Maheshvar
or Shiva in the middle,
Nilkantheshvar: On the right bank of the river, about seventy yards (64 metres) south-east of Uma-maheshvar's, stands Nilkantheshvar's temple. It is built of beautifully dressed richly carved trap. It is fast falling into decay and unless prompt measures are taken to repair it, it may crumble before long. It faces east across the river and has a porch dome and spire of graceful outline. The object of worship is it very old linga said to date from the time of the mythic king Janaka, the father-in-law of Rama. An inscription in the front wall states that the present temple was built in 1747 (Shaka 1669) by Lakshmanshankar, brother of Naro Shankar Raja Bahadur of Malegaon, at a cost of about Rs. 10,000. In times of flood the rocks on which the temple stands are surrounded by water. In front of the temple a flight of steps leads to the water.
About fifty yards (45.72
metres) south-west of Nilkantheshvar's, and reached from it by a flight
of forty-eight steps, is the Panchratneshvar temple, a brick and wood
building which from outside looks like a house. The linga in
this temple is believed to date the time of Rama and to take
its name from the filet that Rama offered it gold, diamonds, sapphires,
rubies and pearls, a gift which is known as the five jewels or Panchratna.
The linga has a silver mask with five heads which it wears
on certain days, especially on the full-moon of Karttika (November).
The temple was built by Yajneshvar Dikshit Patvardhan in 1758 at an
estimated cost of Rs. 15,000. By keeping the original central gabhara
intact the rest has been converted into cloisters which are let
on hire to the pilgrims. The management is in the hands of the Dikshit
family. In front of the temple is an ascetic's monastery and outside
of the monastery a small
Rama: High above the river-bed,
about ten yards (9.14 metres) east of Panchratneshvar's, is an antique
temple of Rama called Gora or White to distinguish it from the Black
or Kala Rama across the river in Panchavati. The temple is reached by
a flight of forty dressed stone-steps from the river-side. There is
also a smaller door from the town-side on the south. In front of the
temple is a large outer hall or sabhamandap about sixty square
feet (5.57 square metres). It has room for about 2,000 people, the men
sitting below and the women in the gallery. Every morning and evening
holy books of Puranas are read almost always to a crowd of listeners.
In this outer hall are four figures, about three feet (0.914 metre)
high, of Ganapati, Maruti,
On raised ground in the river-bed,
about twenty yards (18.28 metres) south of Gora Rama's is Murlidhar's
temple. In the shrine of this temple is a group of cleverly-cut white
marble figures about three and a half feet (one metre) high. In the
centre Murlidhar or
Vriddheshvara: Close to Murlidhar's is a temple to Shiva under the name of Vriddheshvara. It is a square stone building of no great beauty and contains a stone linga. It was built by the Durve family in 1763. Hardly any devotee dares worship this god as his worship is believed to bring bad fortune.
Conspicuous by its red and
white dome is Tarakeshvar's temple about fifty yards (45.72 metres)
south-east of Gora Rama's, in the bed of the river, opposite to Naro
Shankar's or the
Balaji's temple is a large
and rich building about ten yards (9.14 metres) south-west of Tarakeshvar's.
The temple is regarded with peculiar holiness as being at the meeting
In Balaji's temple the routine of daily worship begins with the Kakad-arati or the wick-lamp waving at six in the morning. The object of this ceremony is to awaken the god by well-omened songs or bhupalyas. A camphor-lamp is also waved before the image. About twenty-five persons attend. Service or puja is performed from nine to twelve and again from six to seven. After nine at night is performed the shej-arati, the object of which is to bring sleep to the god by songs and the waving of lamps. About twenty-five people generally attend. On the first night of the Nine Nights or Navaratra festival, during the first fortnight of Ashvin (October), Balaji's wheel-weapon or sudarshana is laid in a car and drawn through the town. The route is from Balaji's temple along the paved river-bed, past the Delhi gate, then through the Nav Darvaja to Tiundha, past Dhondo Mahadev's mansion, along old Tambat Ali to near the inside of the Trimbak gate and then by a side lane past Hundivala's vada and Kakirdya's vada back to Balaji's temple. During the circuit the people of the houses by which the car passes offer flowers, plantains, guavas, sweetmeats, cocoanuts, and money. The number in the procession is generally about 600 of whom five-sixths are usually money. Throughout this procession the temple ministrant has to walk backwards with folded hands and face towards the car. On each of the following nine days the image is seated on a carrier or vahan and borne round the outside of the temple. The carrier varies from day to day. On the first day it is a lion, on the second a horse, on the third an elephant, on the fourth the moon, on the fifth the sun, on the sixth the monkey-god Maruti, on the seventh an eagle, on the eighth a peacock, on the ninth a serpent, and on the tenth it is again seated in the car. On the night of the seventh day the god is married to Lakshmi. On the seventh and eighth days a feast is arranged for the Brahmans. Formerly the feast was held on the twelfth day on the pavement on the right bank of the river, the site of the Kapurthala tower. In 1839 an officer in the public works department passed between two rows of about 300 Brahmans who forming a mob, attacked his bungalow, broke the window, and destroyed the furniture. On the tenth day or Dasara, the images are placed in the car and the car is dragged round the hall sabhamandap. A large crowd of visitors come to worship the images in the evening. During these Navaratra holidays a large amount of money is collected. Some of these receipts are on account of kanagi, .a percentage on their profits which merchants and others lay by in the name of Balaji. On the eleventh day the chief images are taken in the car to the river Clod are bathed and worshipped. The ceremony on the river-bank lasts for about three hours. On this occasion two or three hundred musicians from the neighbouring villages attend and sing and play. Each of them gets a turban. Rama Navami and Gokul Ashtami are aha celebrated. Pravachana and kirtana are an every day affair. In 1842 some armed dacoits entered the temple and removed the idols along with whatever jewellery they could lay hands upon. However, the idols were traced at Ramsej and brought back to the temple in a palanquin procession.
Gondeshvar Krishneshvar: On the river-bank, about ten yards (9.14 metres) south of Balaji's are the temples of Gondeshvar and Krishneshvar, which were built in 1776 by Dhondo Dattatraya Naygavkar at a cost of over Rs. 10,000. In the shrine of each is a white marble linga, both of which end in a five-headed bust of Mahadeva. Between the two temples is that of Vithoba containing stone idols of Vithoba and Rakhumai, each about one and a half feet (0.457 metre) high. These temples have no endowments and no special ceremonies.
About fifty yards (45.72,
metres) south-west of Gondeshvar's and Krishneshvar's and about 500
feet (152.40 metres) west of the river-bank, stands the
About twenty yards (18.28 metres) south-west of Tilbhandeshvar's is Siddheshvar Mahadev's temple, a plain brick building with a stone linga. It was built by one Kale in 1775 at an estimated cost of Rs. 1,000. It has no income and no worship.
ten yards (9.14 metres) south of Siddheshvar's at the feet of the pipal
tree inside the
Two or three yards west of
Kashi Vishveshvar's, at the meeting of the Gayatri and the Godavari,
once washed by the river but now at some distance from it, is the temple
of Murdeshvar or Mrigayadhishvara. According to a local story Mahadeva
rescued the live rivers
monuments: In the river-bed,
about fifty yards (45.72 metres) south of Balaji's temple, are the Kapurthala
monuments, which were built in memory of the chief of that state who
"Erected in memory of His Highness Furzund Dilbund Rasukhoolat quad-Doulut-i-Englishia Raja-i-Rajgam Rajah Rundheer Singh Bahadur Ahloowallia, G. C. S. C Valee I Kapoorthalla Boundee Batonlee and Acouna. Born in March 1832, 15th Chef Sumbut 1888, and died at sea near Aden in April 1870, 22nd Chef Sumbut 1926 on his way to England, to which country he was proceeding to pay his respects to Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria, Sovereign of the United Kingdom of England Ireland and Scotland and Empress of India and the Colonies."
the north face are inscriptions in Sanskrit and Urdu to the same purport.
The Kapurthala rest-house, which is about twenty yards (18.48 metres)
west of the fountain, is about thirty feet (9.14 metres) above the river-bed
and is reached by twenty-four steps. The rest-house was built at a
cost of Rs. 14,690. It is a cut-stone building with an open central
court about thirty feet by twenty (9.14 × 6.09 metres). In the west
or back wall a shrine with images of Rama, Lakshmana, Sita, Ganga and
About eighty yards (73.15
metres) south of Rokda Maruti's shrine are the Satyanarayan temple
and monastery, Nilkantheshvar's shrine, and a small temple of Modkeshvar
Ganapati, Satyanarayan's shrine and monastery are in the same building
which is of wood and has a small niche to Devi in the west or back wall,
and a shrine of Satyanarayan in a corner of the south wall A door in
the north corner of this building leads to a small temple, of Nilkantheshvar
Mahadeva. It is a stone building with a shrine and porch. The shrine
has what looks like an old door-post of about the twelfth or thirteenth
century much like the door-post of the ruined Someshvar temple at Gangapur
six miles (9.65 km.) west of
Durgadevi: About 150 yards (137.16 metres) south-east of Satyanarayan's monastery a winding road missing the Ashra gate leads to the shrine of Durgadevi, a small stone and mortar building about four feet (1.219 metres) wide and eight feet high (2.438 metres), having within its back or west wall an image of Durgadevi besmeared with red lead. About 190 yards (173.73 metres) south-east of Durgadevi's shrine are the Varashimpi's steps which were built by a tailor named Vara. Here also are steps which lead up to the ruined Ketki gate and four shrines or Chhatris erected in memory of cremated or buried Hindus, one of them in honour of the father of Mr. Raghoji Trimbakji Sanap.
Talkute: About 100 yards (91.44 metres) further south, is the Talkute temple, the last building on the right bank of the river. It is a small Mahadeva's temple of stone with rich ornament and a graceful porch dome and spire. It was built in 1783 by a tailor named Sopanshet Talkute, at an estimated cost of Rs. 20,000. It contains a linga and in the porch is a bull or nandi. When in flood the river surrounds the temple. About a hundred yards (91.44 metres) south of this temple is one of the two Hindu cremation grounds.
the temples described above, there are others of lesser importance.
The Lakshmi-Narayan temple in Chandvadkar galli, though the recent
construction, contains attractive crystal idols of Lakshmi and Narayan.
It was built by one Annapurnabai, wife of one Vaman Dhakdev Chaughule
Yeshvantrav Maharaj samadhi and mandir is yet another
noteworthy temple on the bank of the river. It is built on the place
where Yeshvantrav Maharaj alias Dev, a local saint, took samadhi
in 1887. The temple and samadhi have been built by his followers
and are after the style of the Pandharpur temple. The spacious yard
around serves as a public meeting place. The whole has cost about Rs.
20,000. Behind Bhatji Maharaj's monastery is a
Including those in Panchavati,
there are innumerably temples on the left bank and side of the river.
Beginning with those farthest up the stream, the first beyond the Aruna,
to the north-west of Kapaleshvar and about eighty yards (73.15 metres)
north-west of the very holy Ramakund, is a
Ajgarbava's monastery: Near the Ramakund about 30 yards (27.43 metres) south-east of Vithoba's temple, is Ajgarbava's monastery, a small plain structure. It was built in 1788 by Amritrav Shivdev Vinchurkar at an estimated cost of Rs. 5,000 in memory of Ajgarbava, a Kanoja Brahman, a cavalry soldier who turned ascetic. He was called Ajgarbava or the Ajgar devotee, because like the serpent of that name he was indifferent to anything that happened.
buildings: About seventy
feet (21.33 metres) south-east of Ramakund are the Ahalyabai buildings
including temples to Rama and Mahadeva, and a rest-house. These are
all solid structures which were built at an estimated cost of Rs. 25,000
in 1785 by the princess Ahalyabai Holkar, the famous temple-builder.
Rama's temple is a massive square building of brick and stone with an
outside flight of steps. It contains images of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita,
which are said to have been all found in the Ramakund. There are also
images of Ahalyabai and Maruti. Special festival in honour of the images
are held in the Chaitra navaratra (March-April) from the first
to the ninth day of the bright half of the month. To the south of Rama's
temple is Mahadeva's temple generally called the Gora nandi or
Gora Mahadeva. It is a graceful building with porch, shrine and spire.
The object of worship is a linga. To the east of the
Kampaleshvar: East of Ajgarbava's
monastery, about fifty feet (15.24 metres) above the river-bank at the
top of a high flight of steps, about forty yards (36.57 metres) from
the Ramakund and exactly opposite Sundar-narayan's is the temple of
Shiva Kampaleshvar or the skull-wearing Mahadeva. The present building
stands on the site of an older temple which was destroyed by the Moghals.
Its architecture is square and massive with little ornament. Its shrine
is at the east end. Its notable white cement dome once distinguished
it from the neighbouring temples. Due to neglect and want of proper
care, rain and heat has turned the white dome black. The only object
of worship is a linga which has no guardian bull. This is one
of the most important temples in
About fifty yards (45.72
metres) north of Kampaleshvara's is a well-built stone
Indrakund: About 400 yards (365.76 metres) north of Pataleshvara's, on the wooded banks of the Aruna stream, is a built pool called Indrakund where Indra is said to have bathed and been cured of the thousand ulcers with which he was afflicted under the curse of the sage Gautama whose wife he had violated. The pool holds water throughout the year.
eighty yards (73.15 metres) south of Indrakund is Muthe's Mandir,
Sita Gumpha: About half a mile east of the Krishna Mandir, and about fifty yards (45.72 metres) north-east of the temple of Kala Rama, close to some very old and lofty banyan trees, which are believed to have sprung from the five banyans which gave its name to Panchvati, is the Sita Gumpha or Sita's Cave. The cave is hid by a modem rest-house whose front is adorned with some well-carved wooden brackets in the double lotus and chain style. A large anteroom (30' 9" x 8' 2" x 8'=9.37 x 2.48 x 2.43 metres) leads into an inner room (l9' x I2' 4" x 10'=5.79 x 3.75 x 3.04 metres) in whose back wall a door leads down seven steps to a valued chamber (5' 8" broad and 7' high=1.72 and 2.13 metres). In the back of the chamber a door opens into a close dark shrine on a two-feet (0.609 metre) higher level with images of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita in a large niche in the back wall. A door (2' 7" x 1' 8"=0.787 X 0.508 metre) in the left wall of the shrine leads one step down to a small ante-room (3' x 2' 6" x 5' 2"=0.914 X 0.762 X 1.574 metres) at the foot of the left wall of which an opening I' 8" (0.509 metre) high by I' 3" (0.381 metre) broad, only just large enough to crawl through, leads two steps down to a vaulted room (9' 3" x 5' x 9' 9"=2.81 X 1.52 X 2.97 metres). A door in the east wall of this room leads to a shrine of Mahadeva on a one foot (0.304 metre) higher level. The shrine is vaulted and contains a linga symbol. All these rooms and shrines are without any opening for air or light. Behind the Mahadeva shrine is said to be the entrance to an underground passage, now blocked, which led six miles (9.65 km.) north to Ramsej hill, where Rama used to sleep. It was in this cave that Rama used to hide Sita when he had to leave her, and it was from here that Sita was carried by Ravana disguised as a religious beggar. The shrine has no grant. The ministrant, who is a Kunbi Gosavi, lives on the dakshina given by the pilgrims and the charge levied on account of the lamp-carrier who guides the pilgrims through the cave. He is said to make a considerable income.
Maruti: Above 900 yards (823
metres) east of Sita Gumpha, is the
There is a description of an earthen mound nearabout Sita gumpha appearing in the old Nasik District Gazetteer. Today there are no traces of this earthen mound as the area round about is full of houses recently constructed. However, a description of the same is reproduced below:
Earthen mound: In the south side of a field, about a hundred yards (91.44 metres) south-east of Sita's cave, is a smooth-flat-topped mound of earth about thirty feet (9.14 metres) high, ninety paces round, and twelve feet (3.65 metres) across at the top. The mound is much like the Gangapur mound and the whole of the surface is of earth. There is no legend connected with it. The popular, and probably the correct, belief is that the mound was made at the time of building Kala Rama's temple, which is about eighty yards (73.15 metres) to the west of it. The earth is said to have formed a slope to the top of the walls up which the heavy stones used in building the temple were dragged. When the building was finished the earth was cleared away from the walls and piled into this mound. Large number of stone-chips scattered over the mound support the belief. At the same time these stone-chips may be only a surface deposit, and considering its likeness to the Gangapur and Malhar mounds to the west of the city this mound seems worth examining.
Rama: About eighty yards
(73.15 metres) west of the earthen mound is the
The first part of the daily service consists of the kakad-arti or wick-waving at about six in the morning, when about 100 persons attend. At about ten a service by the temple ministrant follows. It consists of bathing the images, dressing them with clothes, ornaments and flowers, burning incense and a clarified butter lamp, and offering food or naivedya. On this occasion no visitors attend. About nine at night is the shej-arti or the bed-waving, when twenty to fifty persons attend. The day specially sacred to the god is Ramanavami, a festival which lasts for thirteen days in Chaitra (March-April). The rites differ from those of ordinary days in nothing except that the robes and ornaments are richer and more beautiful. The attendance is considerably larger. On the eleventh of these thirteen days is the car or ratha fair, when people from the town and the villages round attend to the number of 50,000 to 60,000. At this time the temple is so crowded that both gates have to be used, the east for men and the north for women. Two cars presented by Gopikabai, the mother of Madhavrav, the fourth Peshva (1761-1772), are driven through the city. The cars are kept in repair by the Raste family and the temple ministrant respectively. They are similar in appearance except that one is larger than the other. The larger consists of a wooden platform 11' x 8' (3.35 x 2.43 metres) on solid wooden wheels. On the platform twelve wooden pillars support a canopy and at one end is a smaller canopy in which the images of the god are placed during the procession. The larger car conveys the image of Rama and about ten Brahmans. It is pulled by about 100 people with ropes. The smaller car called Vimana carries an image of Maruti and some Brahmans and is pulled by about fifty people. The cars start about three in the afternoon and are brought back to the temple about twelve at night. The route is from the temple by Karta Maruti, through Ganeshvadi and the fair-weather market by Rameshvar and Ramakund and Raste's mansion back to the Kala Rama temple. In the soft sandy surface of the fair-weather market the cars are dragged backwards and forwards. The cars reach Ramakund about seven in the evening and stop there for three hours, when a complete service with fireworks is performed. During the whole time that the procession is moving the temple ministrant has to walk backwards, his face towards the car and his hands folded.
The other special holidays are the eleventh day, Ekadashi, in each fortnight of every Hindu month, when in the evening the footprints or padukas of Rama are set in a palanquin and is carried round the temple inside the outer wall. Except in Ashadha and Karttika (July and November) when 200 to 300 people come, the attendance is not more than 100 or 150. This palanquin show also takes place on the Dasara, the tenth of the bright half of Ashvina (September-October) when the padukas are taken outside the town to cross the boundary. About 100 people attend and 1,000 to 2,000 persons visit the temple on Dasara day. On the Makara Sankranti (14th January) 4,000 to 10,000 persons, chiefly men, visit the temple. On the next day (15th January), almost all Hindu women visit the temple to offer turmeric or halad, saffron or kunku, and sugared sesamum to Rama's wife Sita and give them to each other. Ramanavmi is also celebrated when about 60,000 devotees gather at the temple. .
Bhairav: To the north of Rama's temple is a shrine of Bhairav which was built in 1793 by Kanphate Gosavis at an estimated cost of about Rs. 1,000. Close to the north of it is a monastery built by Kanphate Gosavis in 1773 and repaired in 1858 by an idol-seller. It has a linga of Mahadev and several ascetics tombs.
Monastery: Leaving Kala Rama's
by the middle door in the south wall, a winding road leads south-west
towards the river. After about fifty yards (45.72 metres), a large two-storeyed
rest-house on the left gives entrance to an enclosure in the centre
of which is a tomb of a Shankaracharya or Shaiv pontiff, and
the time of the second Peshva (1720-1740) Sachchidanand Shankaracharya
is said to have come from Shringeri in
or Naro Shankar: Naro Shankar's
Besides these temples and shrines, along both sides of the river facing the different bathing pools or kundas, are a number of small temples and shrines dedicated some to Mahadeva, some to Ganapati, some to Devi, and some to Maruti. These are all completely under water during floods. They seem never to be repaired and no one seems to look after them, except that the municipality cleans them when they get choked with mud.
This completes the temples
and shrines on or near the banks of the
Bhadrakali's stands the
Renuka: The two Renuka Mandirs in new and old Tambat Ali belong to the Tambats. Each has a tiled roof without dome or spire. These temples contain no images but those of Renuka. The chief festivals are during the Navaratra or the first nine nights of the bright half of Ashvina (October) and on the full-moon of Karttika (November).
There is a Sarasvati Keshava mandir near Dingar Ali.
Jarimari: There are three small temples of Jarimari or the cholera goddess in three different places beyond town-limits. The ministrants who are Marathas make considerable gains, especially when cholera is prevalent, as members of all castes make the goddess presents of cooked rice and curds called dahibhat, a bodice or choli, cocoanut and money.
Mahadeva: There are two temples of Mahadeva. One near Jenappa's steps was built by a Lingayat in 1828. The other near Gharpure's steps was built by Rambhat Gharpure in 1776 with the help of the Peshvas.
Ganapati: There are two temples to Ganapati, a domed building inside the Nav Gate made by Hingne, the other in the mandir or dwelling house style about fifty feet east of the jail in Aditvar Peth, built by Bapaji Lathe and enjoying a yearly Government grant.
Svaminarayan: The Svaminarayan monastery is in the Somvar Peth and has the tomb of a saintly ascetic or Siddha-purusha.
The Shenvis' monastery is just to the north of the spot where Collector's office was situated previously.
these temples and shrines
places: In the bed, of the
Godavari, between Govardhan about six miles (9.65 km.) to the west and
Tapovan about a mile and a half (two kilometres) to the south-east of
eleven tirthas between Govardhan-Gangapur and
down the river, on its left bank, is the Ahalya-sangam tirtha. Near
it is a shrine of Mhasoba. About half a mile south-east of
Pools: The Kundas or
Holy Pools in the bed of the
Several causes combine to
holiest spot in
year from all parts of
are of two main classes, laymen and devotees. The laymen are chiefly
good-caste Hindus, Brahmans, Vanis, Rajputs, Vanjaris, craftsmen and
husbandmen. A smaller number of Bhils, Mhars and others bathe in the
river and feed the priest\. Among the lay pilgrims, men occasionally
come alone, but, as a rule, all who can afford to bring their wives
and children. From early times the pilgrim's need of food and lodging
and of having some one to officiate at the various religious ceremonies
has supported a special class of priestly hosts and guides. These men
are known as priests of the place or Kshetra upadhyas; they are
sometimes also called Ramakundyas or priests of Rama's Pool.
All of them are Brahmans mostly of the Yajurvedi or Madhyandina
sub-division and some of the families have held their posts of professional
entertainers and guides for more than 300 years. Most of them are families
of long standing who live in large ancestral houses in high comfort.
Each family of guides has a certain number of families of different
castes and from various parts of the country, to some member of which
he or his forefathers have acted as guides. These families are called
the guide's patrons or yajmans. To guard against mistakes, and
prevent any of their patrons leaving them in favour of a rival, each
family of guides keeps a record of his patrons. This record, which,
in some cases, lasts for over 300 years, is very detailed. It is kept
in the form of a ledger, and contains letters signed by each patron
giving his name and address, stating that on a certain date he visited
Nasik as a pilgrim and went through the different rites; adding the
names and addresses of his brothers, uncles, sons and other near
relations; and enjoining his descendants or any member of
the family who may visit Nasik, to employ the owner of
the book as his priest. When another member of the family
If they have relations or friends the pilgrims stay with them. If they have no friends they halt in rest-houses, or, as is more usual, in rooms provided by their guide, who gives them cooking pots, arranges for their grain, fuel and other supplies, and if they are rich engages a cook and a house servant. The lodging and boarding facilities in Nasik have deprived the priests of a considerable amount of their income, as in early days the pilgrims generally lodged and dined at the priests' and paid them substantially for their services.
The ceremonies begin on the day of the arrival, or later, should there be any reason for delay. They generally last for three days, though if necessary they can be crowded into one. They are of two kinds, memorial rites for the peace of the dead, and bathing and alms-giving to purify the pilgrim from his own sins. When three days are devoted to these ceremonies, the first is spent in bathing and fasting, the second in the performance of memorial rites, and the third in feeding Brahmans and visiting the chief holy places in the city. The first and third days' observances are conducted by the guides or their agents, and all pilgrims share in them. The memorial rites are managed by different priests, and only the chief mourners, women for their husbands and men for their fathers, take part in them. The first ceremony called the river present or Gangabhet, is to make offerings as a present to the river at Rama's Pool, or, if this is inconvenient, at some part of the river below Rama's Pool. After the present to the river and before bathing, each pilgrim makes five offerings or arghyas, each offering consisting of a cocoanut, a betelnut, almonds, dates, fruit, and money or dakshina, varying according to his means. A wife, who comes with her husband, sits on his left with her right hand touching his right arm. She is not required to offer separate gifts. After making the offerings they bathe, and their wet clothes, and in rare cases their ornaments, are made over to the priest. If the father or mother is dead, or the husband in the case of a woman, the pilgrim, without changing the wet clothes, goes a few yards to one side, and if she is a woman has her head shaved, or if a man the whole of his face beginning with the upper lip, the head except the top-knot and the arm-pit. After paying the barber the pilgrim bathes a second time and offers one to 360 atonements or prayashchittas, each of one anna to Rs. 60. At the same time he also makes gifts nominally of cows or gopradana, but generally in cash, from one to ten gifts the total amount varying from ten annas to Rs. 100. This is followed by a gift to Brahmans called samasta dakshina, usually four annas to Rs. 5 but sometimes as much as Rs. 4,000. This is distributed among Brahmans; the guide, when the sum is large, generally keeping a considerable share to himself. Finally, if he has the means, the pilgrim offers a sum with a libation of water for feeding Brahmans, or building a flight of steps or a temple. He then goes to his lodging and fasts for the rest of the day.
Early next morning, before breaking his fast, the pilgrim, if a father, mother or husband is dead, performs a memorial ceremony or shraddha in their honour. The ceremony almost always takes place in the pilgrim's lodging. Two to five Brahmans ate called to represent the dead and are fed. Rice-balls or pinds, according to the usual form, are offered to the dead, and in front of them a gift of five paise and upwards according to the pilgrim's means is laid for the officiating priest. Besides this gift, presents of cash, clothes, pots and lamps are made to each of the Brahmans who are fed. After the ceremony a meal is taken.
For the third
day there remain the worship of the river or
worship: To worship Ganga
the ceremony of going round the town or pradakshina, which is
optional and is not always done, there are two courses, one of six and
the other of ten miles. Unlike the Panchkroshi round
This completes the ordinary details of a pilgrim's ceremonies and expenses. In addition to these the rich occasionally ask learned Brahmans to recite hymns from the Vedas paying each 25 paise to Re. 1, or he calls a party of learned Brahmans and gives them presents. It was a practice of presenting a sum of money to every Brahman household in the town which is no more in vogue.
is over the pilgrim gives his priest a money gift according to his means
with shawls and other clothes in special cases, and makes an entry in
the priest's book stating that he has acted as his guide. Under certain
circumstances special arrangements are made to meet the expenses of
the different ceremonies. Before beginning, a list of the different
items is drawn out and the whole sum the pilgrim means to spend is put
down and divided among the items. In the case of a poor pilgrim the
priest sometimes takes over the whole amount the pilgrim means to pay
and meets the cost of whatever articles have to be brought. The amount
usually spent varies from Rs. 10 to Rs. 100. For very poor pilgrims
even one rupee is enough. It may be roughly estimated that an average
pilgrim spends Rs. 10 to Rs. 75. As the influence of religion in its
ritualistic form is fast waning in recent times only a few of those
The second class of Nasik
pilgrims are professional devotees, A century and a quarter years ago,
men of this class chiefly of the Gosavi sect used to cause very
great trouble. Strong big men from north
remains: The Musalman remains
Old Fort: In the extreme south-east of the town rising about eighty feet from the river-bank is a flat-topped bluff known as the Old Fort or Juni Gadhi (410´ x 320´). Though now except for a small ruined mosque an the west crest, bare of buildings and without a sign of fortification, fifty years ago the hill was girt with a wall. The ground on the tap of the hill shows that it has a pretty thick layer formed of the ruins of old buildings. The mound is said to have been first fortified by the Musalmans. The exposed north scarp shows that it is alluvial throughout.
Persian inscription on its east face shows that the Delhi gate was built
by order of Tude Khan, governor of Nasik in H.1092 (A. D. 1681),
during the reign of the Emperor Aurangzeb. The Kazipura gate
was built by Kazi Syed Muhammad Hassan in H. 1078 (A. D. 1667)
or fourteen years before the
mosque: On the top of the
hill to the west of the Old Fort is the Jama Masjid or Public
Mosque (95´ x 56´). It is reached through a small walled enclosure with
a few trees and tombs. The mosque is of stone. The front is plain except
for two stone brackets near the centre and small stone pillars at the
ends. Inside, the pillars are plain short and massive about, three feet
nine inches square below and five feet nine inches high to the point
from which the roof rises in Musalman arches. The building bears clear
traces of Hindu origin. According to the local belief it was a temple
of the goddess Mahalakshmi. The brackets in front have the carved double
lotus-head ornament and the festoons of chains and smaller lotus flowers,
so general in
In the Dargha sub-division
of Jogvada, in a large enclosure is the tomb of Syed Sadak Shah Husain
Kadari Sirmast of
Of the smaller mosques fourteen are old and eight new. Most of the old mosques are ruined and six of them enjoy Government grants. Besides the mosques there is a chandni or travellers' rest-house which was built in 1736 and was repaired in 1882. Some new mosques have been built since, but none is noteworthy.
Palaces: The Peshvas'
new and old palaces were the other objects of interest in
old palace, also known as Court-house, was an old Maratha mansion built
by a Brahman called Rairikar. It afterwards fell into the Peshva’s
hands and came to be known as the Peshva’s
Bahadur's mansion: On the
Khadkali road in the west of the town is Naro Shankar Raja Bahadur's
mansion said to be about two hundred and thirty-five years old and probably
the largest building in
According to Hindu accounts,
in the first cycle or Krita Yuga. Nasik was called Padmanagara
or the Lotus City; in the second cycle or Treta Yuga, it was
called Trikantaka or the Three-peaked; in the third cycle or Dvapara
Yuga it was called Janasthana or the peoples' habitation; and in
the fourth or present cycle, the Kali Yuga, it is called Nasik
or Navshikha apparently the Nine-peaked [The derivation of the
name “Nasika" from Sanskrit " Navashikhara" is Philologically
impossible. (V. V, Mirashi).]. Of Padmanagara and Trikantaka,
earliest historical reference to Nasik is about B. C. 200 in an inscription
on the Bharhut stupa in the Central Provinces, about 100 miles
(160.93 metres) north-east of Jabalpur. The inscription is on one of
the pillars of the rail, and records 'the gift of Gorakshita of Nashika,
the wife of Vasuka'. About B. C. 125-100 Nasik is mentioned in the two
earliest inscriptions Nos. XVIII and XIX of the
in the fourteenth century, Nasik came under the power of the Delhi viceroy
at Daulatabad, and afterwards (1350) of the Bahamani kings, From the
Bahamani kings, early in the sixteenth century, it passed to the Ahmadnagar
dynasty, and was wrested from them by the Moghals about a hundred years
later. By one of its Musalman rulers the name of Nasik was changed'
to Gulshanabad, the City of Roses, and it was made the head-quarters
of a division, Musalman Nasik was limited to the nine hills or teks
to the south of the Sarasvati stream. The north-east hill, now known
as the Old Fort or Navi Gadhi, was fortified, and the New Fort
or Navi Gadhi was made the site of the governor's residence or
in the 20th century
Neighbourhood: Among the objects of interest in the neighbourhood of Nasik are, the Dasara Patangan or Dasara Pavement, close to the east of the Station road, about half a mile to the south-east of the city; Tapovan, Shurpanakha's Nostrils, and Lakshmana's Caves, about a mile east of Panchvati; the Jain Chambhar Caves, about three miles to the north of Nasik; the old settlement of Govardhan now called Govardhan-Gangapur, six miles (9.65 km.) to the west, with an old burial-mound, a fine waterfall, and a few pillars and images of about the eleventh or twelfth century; and the Pandu Lena or Buddhist Caves in a hill on the Bombay-Agra road, five miles (8 km.) to the south.
About half a mile to the south-east of the city, close to the east of the Station road, is a row of four or five small standing stones. These stones have been set by Nasik Kunbis in honour of their ancestors. On some, which are laid flat, feet are carved; others which stand up like headstones, have their faces carved with rude human figures and with a sun and moon. The heroes or virs, pronounced virs, who live in these stones were once worshipped on every Dasara (September-October). A body of Kunbis and other castes, headed by the headman of the town, used to go with a long pole called Kanhoba's Kathi, with streamers of red yellow and white cloth and a young buffalo. The buffalo was killed by the headman by a stroke of his sword, and the procession then proceeded to the row of stones, and the spirit of the heroes entered the body of one of their descendants. The possessed man was scourged with a hemp rope and the spirit left his body and passed then into the body of the scourger. The people then danced round and sang.
Tapovan: Tapovan or the
These are all rough plain cells with doorways and small benches but without anything to show their age or the religion of the men who made them.
Municipality: Established in 1952, the Nasik Road-Devlali municipality has an area of 20.72 square kilometres (eight square miles) under its jurisdiction. The municipal committee. composed of twenty councillors, is headed by a president who is elected by the councillors from among themselves. With the assistance of the necessary staff the administrative affairs are directed by this committee.
Finance: Income during 1964-65 due to various heads but excluding extra-ordinary and debt heads amounted to Rs. 8,22,406. Extraordinary and debt heads brought in Rs. 5,33,962 to the municipal exchequer. The sources of income comprised municipal rates and taxes contributing Rs. 5,96,825; realisation under special acts Rs. 2,261; revenue derived from municipal property and powers apart from taxation Rs. 1,07,375; grants and contributions Rs. 93,924 and miscellaneous Rs. 22,021. An expenditure of Rs. 11,16,583 was incurred during the same year on normal heads. The expenditure incurred on extra-ordinary and debt heads stood at Rs. 3,24,062 during 1964-65. The normal heads of expenditure were general administration Rs. 1,16,119; public health and conservancy Rs. 8,34,861; public instruction Rs. 74,596; and miscellaneous Rs. 99,007.
Municipal Works: Two major vegetable markets have been built and named as Yashvant Mandai and Javahar Mandai. While the former was built at a cost of Rs. 1,25,000, the latter has cost Rs. 2,75,000. Besides, daily markets are held at Sinnar Phata and Gorevadi. On every Monday a weekly bazar is held at Devlaligaon. Apart from culverts built on roads, it has provided for Harijan quarters and a cattle-shed costing Rs. 50,000.
Health, sanitation and water-supply: The town is served with adequate medical aid facilities. The municipality conducts a dispensary, a maternity home and a surgical home, equipped with up-to-date equipment, where honorary surgeons of known repute perform all types of operations. A dispensary is also maintained by the India Security Press. Though the town has no veterinary dispensary, arrangement for bi-weekly visit of the veterinary surgeon of the camp area has been made by the municipality towards which end it pays Rs. 500 annually. As the place enjoys a healthy climate no epidemics have been reported in recent years.
Drainage system consists of well-built surface drains. The sullage and waste-water is let into the Gosavi Ohol which meets the Valdevi river down-stream.
town receives tap-water from Chehadi water-works on the Darna maintained
by the. Public Health Department,
Education: Primary education is compulsory,
its enforcement resting with the Zilla Parishad. The municipal contribution
is calculated at 5 per cent of the annual letting value which on an
average approximates to Rs. 55,000 per annum. The high schools numbering'
about seven are all managed by various private institutions including
missions. There is also a college for higher education named as R. N.
Chandak Arts and
equipment consists of only one fire-fighter with other necessary accessories.
In times of emergencies, however, the fire-brigades of
the Valdevi banks two cremation grounds with sheds have been maintained
by the municipality. Cremation and burial grounds are also maintained
by the various other communities. Of the recreational places could be
mentioned the Durga Udyan wherein are a temple dedicated to Durga
Devi and a statue of Shivaji. It is a municipal garden. The town has
a temple dedicated to Shankara. The well-known Pandu Lena caves are
only eight kilometres away. The town is electrified and has post and
telegraph facilities, telephone exchange and a police station. There
is regular bus service between
Naydongri, a village in Nandgaon taluka lying 19.31 km. (twelve miles) north-east of Nandgaon, is a railway station on the Bombay-Bhusaval section of the Central Railway. A large weekly market at which agricultural produce, especially bajra, figures prominently is held on Mondays. The village has a high school, a primary school and a post office. Medical aid is rendered by a primary health centre and a maternity home. Naydongri had a population of 4,161 in 1971.
lying 16 km. (ten miles) north-west of Nandgaon, with 3,720 inhabitants
in 1971, is an agricultural village in
with a population of 9,274 as per the 1971 Census, is the headquarters
of the taluka of the same name lying 32.18 km. (20 miles) north-east
of Nasik, the district headquarters. It is a railway station on the
Bombay-Nagpur section of the Central Railway and principally produces
onion, grapes, vegetables, wheat, bajra, jovar and sugarcane,
there being a sugar factory worked on co-operative basis. Tur and
gram are also grown successfully. There are well over a hundred irrigation
wells and a bandhara across Vadali river, which though not located
in Niphad proper helps its agriculture. The medical needs of the populace
are met by a civil dispensary with attached maternity ward and family
planning center, as also a few private medical practitioners. There
are also a veterinary dispensary and a leprosy eradication centre which
has been doing good work in this direction. It is the birth-place of
late Shri Govind Mahadev Ranade and has two high schools, one primary
school and an Urdu school. Besides the usual revenue and police offices,
the town has a post and telegraph office, panchayat samiti, civil
court etc. There is also a rest-house. It has the advantage of the branches
of the State Bank and the land mortgage bank. The agricultural produce
is marketed through the sub-market yard recently established here. Though
the people continue to depend on well-water, they will soon have tap-water
when the water works scheme, already approved by the Government, is
implemented. Weekly bazar is held on Thursdays. There are quite a few
insignificant temples dedicated to various deities. On Magha Shuddha
Paurnima a fair attended by over 2,000 persons is held in honour
of Khanderav. There is also a dargah and some mosques, not one
of which is mentionable. A similar fair is also held in honour of Khandoba
Lena: About [Originally contributed
by Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji. Mr. Bhagvanlal's facsimiles of the inscriptions
in these caves are given in Dr. Burgess'
The caves face north and
north-east. The broad terrace, which runs in front of them, commands
a beautiful and extensive view. A broad plain stretches west, north
and east, rising in the west into confused groups and lines of low broken
hills. Northwards it stretches about
ten miles (16 km.) to the picturesque rugged Bhorgad-Ramsej hills, which
fall eastwards into a level table-land broken by the sharp cone in whose
steep southern face are carved the group of Jaina temples (A. D. 1100)
which are known as the Chambhar Caves. Beyond the sharp cone of the
Chambhar hill, in the distance, stretching roughly cast and west, the
long line of the Chandor range rises into lofty and rocky peaks, pinnacles,
and castellated tops. In the distant north-east the hills sink into
the plain, and again rise in a group of rugged peaks. To the east the
plain swells into level uplands. In front of the cave near the hill-foot
the plain is bare, seamed with water-courses, hedgeless, and with few
trees. Further north along the line of the Nasardi stream and towards
the hardly noticeable hollow of the
The Caves, which are in one row with a levelled space or terrace in front, stretch east and west. Their northern frontage saves them from the sun and. the south-west rains, and as the rock is a close grained seamless trap, much of the rich carved work and many long and most valuable inscriptions have passed fresh and unharmed through 1,500 to 2,000 years.
Cave I: The caves are numbered from west to east. Cave I is a large unfinished excavation, including a veranda, and a hall. The veranda is 38´ 3˝ broad, 6´ 5˝ deep and 12´ 8˝ high. The front was intended to have four pillars and two pilasters, but the work went no further than marking out plain four-sided blocks of rock, one of which, that to the extreme right, has disappeared. At each end of the veranda is the beginning of a cell. A middle and two side-doors, separated by square windows, lead from the veranda into the hall. The left door and window and the right past of the main door have been blasted with powder. The hall has been turned into a rain-water reservoir by hewing out the floor several feet below its original level. The change was probably made because of leakage through some crack or slit in the ceiling. The only point of interest in this cave is an unfinished but unusually well-carved rail in a frieze in the outer face of the veranda. In this' frieze besides the central rail which is covered with animals and Buddhist symbols, are two bands of sculpture, an upper band with festoons of flowers and animals, and a lower band of animals in panels formed by the leaves of a creeper. The best executed animals in the rail are a bull biting his hind-leg, a tiger devouring a man, a running elephant, a deer scratching his mouth with his hind-foot, a galloping bull, and prowling tiger. These groups are difficult to make out as they are small and much weather-worn.
Cave II: Cave II, about twenty-two feet east of cave I, is an old (B. C. 10) dwelling cave which about A. D. 400-500, seems to have been turned into a Mahayana or late Buddhist shrine. Marks in the ceiling show that it originally consisted of a veranda and two plain cells in its back wall. The Mahayana or image-worshipping Buddhists broke the back wall of the veranda, knocked down the partition between the two cells, and turned the whole into a hall. In the back wall of the hall they cut two recesses and adorned them with rock-cut images. The right recess is 6΄6˝ broad, 2΄ 2˝ deep and 6΄ high, In its back wall is a central Buddha, 3΄ 4˝ high, in the teaching or dharmachakra attitude seated an a lion-throne, his feet resting on a lotus flower. From the stalk of the plant two flowers rise on either side of Buddha, and on each flower stands a Bodhisattva, with matted hair. The Bodhisattva to the right of Buddha holds a fly-whisk in his right hand and a blown lotus with stalk in his left hand. He is probably Padmapani Lokeshvara. The left Bodhisattva holds a fly-whisk in his right hand and a thunderbolt or vajra in his left hand. He is probably Vajrapani Lokeshvara. Above the Bodhisattva are floating figures with bag-wigs, probably the demigods called vidyadharas or heavenly choristers. The vidyadhara to the right holds flowers in his hands and that to the left a garland. By the side of the left Bodhisattva three small images of Buddha are seated one over the other. The uppermost is seated cross-legged on a lotus, a position known as the padmasana or lotus seat.
In the side walls of the recess are two standing Buddhas, 3΄3˝ high. Each has his right hand hanging with the palm open in the blessing or vara attitude, and the left hand holds the end of the Shoulder-cloth. In the floor of this recess a modern linga and a bull or nandi have been carved and flying Hanuman has been traced.
The left recess, which is 7’ broad, 3' 6" deep and 6' 5" high, has in the back wall a central teaching Buddha, 4' 10" high, seated on a lion throne, his feet resting on a double lotus. The face is surrounded by an aureole. The throne-back or pithika is ornamented with water-fowls earning out of alligators' mouth. Above the alligators float two Nagarajas. On either side of Buddha is a standing figure of a Lokeshvara, 5' 5" high. The figure to the visitor's left wears a crown, ear-rings, a necklace, and his hair hangs down his neck. In his left hand he holds a thunderbolt or vajra and in his right hand a fly-whisk. The figure has matted hair worn like a crown or jatamukuta and in the hair over the centre of the forehead is a teaching Buddha. His right hand holds a fly-whisk and his left hand a lotus-bud with stalk. He wears no ornaments. In the left wall of the recess a central Buddha, 4' 9" high, sits on a lion-throne, his feet resting on a lotus. From the stalk of this lotus branch two side lotus flowers on each of which stands a Lokeshvara 4' 2" high. Both have matted hair. The right figure has a fly-whisk in his right hand and a lotus with stalk in his left. The left figure rests his left hand on his thigh and holds a fly-whisk in his right. Above both are floating figures. probably Gandharvas, bearing garlands.
To the left of this group on the inner face of the front wall, is a standing Buddha, 4' 10" high, the face surrounded by an aureole. His right hand is held in front with the palm open. The left grasps one end of the shoulder-cloth.
In the right end wail of the veranda is a Buddha seated cross-legged with an open right hand held in front; his left hand is broken. To the right is a fly-whisk bearer whose companion on the left has disappeared. Above the central figure is an unfinished group of a seated teaching Buddha with side Bodhisattvas.
To the right or west of this cave is an unfinished excavation. To the left is a cistern partly filled with earth but still holding good water. Near this is another two-mouthed cistern and behind it an open modem pond partly filled with boulders.
Inscription 1: On what remains of the back wall of the veranda of cave II close to the ceiling is Inscription 1. All but the first line was broken off when the original cave was turned into a late or image-worshipping shrine.
The cells are all plain, about 6' 6" square and 6' 6" high, with doorways about 2' 6" broad and as high as the ceilings. Except a cell in the wall, which has a sleeping recess in its right side, all have benched recesses along their back walls. All have holes about two inches square for the monk's pole or valagni and grooves in the doorways for a wooden frame-work. The holes in the edge of the outer bench and on the floor are modern for tying cattle in the rainy season. The round holes in the floor are for husking grain. .
The hall has a large main doorway 5' 10" broad and 9' 10" high in the middle and a side door to the right 3' 7" broad and 7' 8" high. On either side of the main doorway is a window, the right window 6' 5" broad and 3' 6" high, and the left window 6' broad and 3' 6" high. Both the doorways have grooves for a wooden framework. The main doorway is beautifully decorated with an ornamental gateway or torana of nineteen panels, each about a foot square, seven of them over the doorway and six on the face of each door-post. Of the seven panels over the doorway, the middle panel has a relic-shrine in half relief with umbrella, and two male figures standing on either side of it. On each side of this central panel are three panels. On the first of those to the left is the pipal or Bodhi tree. In the corresponding panel to the right is the Buddhist wheel on a shaft. In the second panel to the left a standing Buddhist monk salutes with his hands joined on his breast. In the corresponding panel to the right is a male figure with a monk-like shoulder cloth but a turban instead of a monk's bald head. In the third panel on either side is a male figure with a turban with hands folded on the breast. .
In the lowest of the six panels on each side of the door is an ugly dwarf-like male figure. The upper five panels on each side appear to tell two stories, each of which seems to begin from the lowest panel. In the lowest panel on the left stand a man and a woman, the man holding the woman's left hand in his. In the second panel the same man and woman stand with their arms round each other's necks. In the third panel is a woman dressed like a nun, but that she is not a nun appears from her anklets and her coiled hair: near her is a man entreating or coaxing her. In the fourth panel the man Of the third panel carries off a woman, dressed like the woman in the second panel, who clings to the nun-like figure with her arm round her neck. The fifth panel shows that the woman who was being carried off has been rescued by the man in the second panel, The story seems to be of a married pair who were living affectionately with one another (the first panel showing their marriage and the second their affection), when a nun acting as go-between, persuades the wife to visit an ascetic in the forest. He tries to carry her off by force, and while she struggles her husband rescues her and takes her home.
In the lowest of the five right-hand panels a woman with a jaunty head-dress leans her left hand on a tree and feeds a swan with her right. In the second panel a man winds his left arm round the same woman's neck and raises his right hand to her face imploring her to speak; below, a boy holds her foot and she rests her left hand on his head. The third panel shows the same man and woman with their arms round each other's necks, and the small boy sitting looking on with folded arms. In the fourth panel the woman sits under a tree with her arms thrown round the boy's neck; the man drags her by the hand but she does not look at him. In the fifth panel the man carries off the woman by force. The story seems to be of man married to a gay wife who loved a servant. She elopes with the servant to a forest where her husband finds her, and failing to persuade her to come, carries her home by force. The first panel shows three marks of the woman's coquetry, her jaunty head-dress, her vain attitude leaning against a tree, and her feeding a swan. In the second panel her hand is laid on the servant's head to show that she loves him. The servant's arms are folded in the third panel to show that he conceals the intrigue with his mistress. The tree in the next panel shows that the scene is in a forest to which the lady has eloped with the servant. In the next her love for the servant is shown by her throwing her arm round his neck, and in the last her downcast hand and averted face show how unwilling she is to go home with her husband.
The two stories illustrate the chaste and the unchaste wife. The chaste wife, inspite of persuasion and force, remains true to her husband and is rescued by him. The unchaste wife, though married to an affectionate husband, elopes with a menial and has to be dragged from him by force.
On either side of the doorway two male figures, 6' 2" high, stand with bunches of lotus flowers in their hands. They wear waist-cloths or dhotars and a second cloth is tied round the waist and its ends left hanging. The left figure wears two plain bracelets. Both wear turbans tied in a high central and two side bosses. The right figure has a single bracelet graven with a waving pattern an armlet wound nearly twice round like a snake, and large ear-rings. These are probably Yakshas, guarding the door of Buddha's shrine.
The veranda is 7' 10" deep, 46' 8" broad and 13' 4" high; its floor is about 2½ inches lower than the hall floor, and its ceiling 2' 10" higher than the hall ceiling. On the left wall is a bench 7' 10" long, 1' 10" board and 1' 8" high. In the right wall is a cell 9' deep, 6' 9" broad and 6' 11" high, with a grooved doorway 2’ 6" broad and 6' 11" high. Along its back wall is a bench 2' 5" broad and 2' 5" high. Near the left end of the back wall of the veranda is another cell 6' 10" deep, 6' 7" broad and 6' 3" high, with a grooved doorway 2' 5" broad and 6' 3" high. Along its left wall is a recess for sleeping. Caves of this kind as a rule have cells in the ends of the veranda facing each other. In this case the cell was cut in the back wall of the veranda, apparently because a cell in the left end of the veranda would have broken into cave IV, which, therefore, seems to be the older excavation. In the front wall of the veranda is a bench 2' 1" broad and 1' 10" high. This bench has a back whose right-hand or western portion is much broken. From the bench rise two pilasters and six pillars. The two right-hand pillars are broken, and of them nothing but the capital remains. The pillars are of the Satakarni type, eight-sided shafts with inverted pot capitals. On the pot various peculiar leaf patterns are engraved, and on a slab over the pot is the myrobalan pattern or amalaka, with, on each of its four comers, figures standing in various attitudes. Of these figures some are children; some are animals with tiger's faces, ears like a hare, and wings; and some, on whose backs are riders, are animals with tiger's faces and antelope-like horns. These figures are on the four middle pillars. The central pair of pillars have human figures and the outer pair animal figures. Over the myrobalan or amalaka are six square plates, each larger than the one below it. On the highest plate rests a belt of rock dressed like a beam of timber, and on the beam rests the ceiling. Over the capital, on either side of the beam-like band of rock, both within and outside of the veranda, are pairs, of animals seated back to back. Beginning with the inside faces of the capitals and taking the pillars in order from west to east, the first pillar has two elephants with drivers; the second has two goat-like animals each with a rider; the third has two elephants, the left elephant holding two bells in its trunk and being driven by a woman; the fourth has two elephants each with a driver and the left elephant has his trunk wound round a woman; the fifth has two imaginary animals with bird-like faces, long ears, and beast-like bodies, each with a driver. The sixth pillar has two elephants, each with a driver and a rider. The left elephant holds in his trunk a lotus flower and stalk.
Outside, beginning from the (visitor's) left or east and going west or right, on the first pillar; are two tigers, each with a driver; on the second two animals with bodies like tigers, faces like birds, and long hare-like ears, each with a driver; on the third two elephants, the left one with a driver and the right one with a rider and driver; on the fourth two lions, each with a rider; on the fifth two elephants each with a driver and a rider, the right-hand group unfinished. Each of these elephants holds in his trunk a bunch of lotus flowers and buds. The animals on this pillar are unusually well carved. The sixth pillar has two bulls, one of them with a driver. The faces of the bulls are well carved but the bodies are unfinished. The pilasters are plain and four-sided, with in the middle of the outer face, a lotus and below and above it a half lotus of the style found on rail pillars of the Satakarni type. The right pilaster has lilies by the side of the lotus; on the left pilaster the lily work is unfinished. Between the two central pillars five steps lead down to the front court.
From above the great beam of rock that passes between the outer and inner faces of the animal capitals the ceiling projects about two feet and supports a frieze about three feet broad. The ceiling at intervals of about nine inches is lined with bands dressed like rafters whose ends stand out about two inches in front of the face of the ceiling beam. Above the ceiling beam, with its projecting rafter ends, the frieze rises about three feet. It consists of a rail of three horizontal bars together about two feet broad, between two six-inch belts of tracery. The faces of the upright and horizontal bars of the rail are carved into lotus flowers, the flowers on the upright bars standing out about two inches further than those on the faces of the horizontal bars. The upper belt of tracery, which is about six inches broad, consists of a row of festoons divided at about every nine inches by hanging tassel-like lotus seed vessels or lily-heads, and within the curve of each festoon a half lotus flower. The under-belt of tracery is also about six inches broad. It consists of a long creeper scroll with nine-inch panels carved in leaves or animals. Beginning from the right or west end of the scroll, in the first panel a child drags the creeper from the mouth of a crocodile; in the next panel an elephant tosses his trunk; in the third panel is one large leaf; in the fourth a tiger and tigress, the tigress with her head close to the ground; in the fifth two leaves; in the sixth two wild bulls; in the seventh two leaves; in the eighth two leaves; in the ninth two wild buffaloes; in the tenth two elephants at play; in the eleventh two lions with their heads close to the ground; in the twelfth two fanciful animals; in the thirteenth two animals, one much defaced on the right, apparently charging, and to the left a deer scratching his face with his hind foot; in the fourteenth two prowling tigers; in the fifteenth two leaves; in the sixteenth something defaced on the right, perhaps a tree, and on the left a wild hog; in the seventeenth a lion and lioness; in the eighteenth on the right two defaced animals fronted on the left by a rhinoceros; in the nineteenth two leaves; in the twentieth three lions; in the twenty-first an animal with a human face, erect horse-like ears, and a tiger's body; in the twenty-second a cow facing east; in the twenty-third three horses, the middle horse much worn; in the twenty-fourth a pair of prowling tigers; in the twenty-fifth three sitting deer; in the twenty-sixth two leaves; in the twenty-seventh a pair of sitting elephants; in the twenty-eighth a sitting bull and in the twenty-ninth two leaves. The north or outer face of the veranda bench is carved into a rail tracery about two feet broad with a six-inch band of festoons above it divided by hanging lily-heads or lotus-seed-vessels nine inches apart; and below the rail a belt of tracery about six inches broad with leaves and perhaps animals but the carving is too worn to be identified. Below is a beam with the ends of rafters standing out and under it are the six massive beams which are borne on the shoulders of the six Gandharvas.
In front of the veranda is a court 43' 8" broad and 14' deep, over which the rock roof projects 9'. On the face of the right wall are two recesses, the inner one unfinished. The intention seems to have been to have one room with a central pillar in front, but the design was not carried out. Above the recesses, between two belts of tracery, is a rail pattern, and in front of the rail and tracery are three female figures, one over the central pillar and one at each end. By the side of the inner woman is a tree towards which she stretches her right hand; her left hand is on her waist. The middle woman rests her left hand on her waist, and in her right which is held aver her shoulder, holds same small article. The third woman, who is much defaced, wears an ascetic's dress, and seems to have a shaven head. Below is a belt of three horizontal rails with an upper band of festoons and a lower belt of animal figures. Below the under belt of animals is a beam-like band with rafter ends projecting. The beam was borne on the heads of three birds. The two outer birds are gone. The inner one has two prominent temples, large eyes and a huge parrot-like beak. Below is a ruined recess which, may have been a cistern. Part of its front was carved in the rail tracery. In the left wall of the court is a cistern in a recess. It is half full with earth, and in the dry season holds no water.
Inscriptions 2 and 3: On the back wall of the veranda to the left of the doorway under the ceiling and above the left window are Inscriptions 2 and 3. Being one below another, they look like one inscription. Inscription two is in eleven long lines of large and distinct letters. Except two holes for a hold-fast made in the last two lines, and a crack in the rock which runs from top to bottom, the inscription is well preserved.
Cave IV: Close to Cave III, on a slightly lower level, is Cave IV. It was originally a dining hall or sattra, but the cracks in the veranda ceiling suggest that it became water-logged and was turned into a large cistern or reservoir by hewing out the rock several feet below the level of the original floor.
Enough of its upper part remains to show that it was in two sections Ii veranda and all inner hall about twenty feet square and nine feet high. The line of a bench of rock that ran along the side and back walls can be traced. The left side of the hall is irregularly cut or is unfinished. The entrance into the hall was by a doorway in the middle of the back wall of the veranda, and on either side of the doorway was a window with strong lattice work. The veranda is 19' 7" broad, 5' 2" deep and 5' 10" high. Water seems to make its way through the ceiling during the rains. At the ends of the veranda are recesses which appear to be the beginnings of unfinished cells. In front of the veranda were two pillars and two pilasters of the Satakarni type. Except the right or west pilaster only the capitals remain. In the front face of each capital are two elephants seated back to back. In the right pilaster, the right elephant has a driver and the left elephant has a driver and two riders, a woman of rank with a man-servant behind her. The woman has her hair rolled in a large knot on the back of her head, and sits facing the visitor coquettishly arranging her hair with her right hand and holding a handled mirror in her left hand. Her servant has a beard and a monkey-like face, the head and ears being hid by a cap. In his right hand he holds what looks like a goblet. On the next pillar the right elephant has a driver and a rider and the left elephant a male driver and two female riders, facing the visitor, both of the riders wearing their hair in large rolls. The left has both her hands folded over her head as if making a reverence or namaskara; the right rider leans forward on the elephant resting her brow on her right hand. On the second pillar the right elephant has a driver and two women-riders. The right woman has her hair in a round roll and is without ornaments. The left woman has a tasselled head-dress and anklets, and her right hand is stretched out helping a third woman to mount the elephant. The left elephant has a driver and a rider. The capital of the left pilaster is much damaged. The right elephant has a driver and the left elephant a driver and two women-riders. The style of dress seems to show that the left woman is the mistress and the right woman the maid.
The ceiling projects about one foot beyond the capitals of the pillars. It rests on rock-cut imitations of wooden rafters, the ends of the rafters projecting and being alternately plain and carved into women's faces. Some holes in the front of the rock show that in some cases where the rock gave way stones were dressed and fitted into the holes to look like the ends of rafters. Above the rafters is a band in the rail pattern about a foot broad, and above the rail the rough rock, which is much broken projects three or three and a half feet.
To the left of Cave IV is a large excavation which appears to be comparatively modern as the chisel-marks are different from the early chisel-marks. Much of the rock above the original excavation has been blasted with gunpowder. A small tunnel of water trickled down the rock at the back of this excavation arid was carried along a channel to the sides and led by a groove or crevice to caves IV and V which are now used as cisterns.
Cave V: Cave V is close beyond this excavation. It was originally a dwelling cave or layana with two cells, but is now a large cistern with good water. The rock has been hewn about twelve feet below the level of the original floor and a space has been hollowed in front. A crack in the ceiling of the veranda which lets in water is probably the reason why the cave was turned into a cistern. The change seems to be modem judging from the chisel-marks and from the carving of a rude Hanuman in the back wall of the right-hand cell. The position of this figure shows that it was cut while the floor of the cell was at its original level. The chisel-marks in the lower part are modem. The original floor was almost as high as the floor of Cave IV or about six feet above the level of the terrace. It was in two parts, a veranda, and two cells in the back wall of the veranda. The cells appear to have been plain about six feet square and about six feet high. Each cell had plain grooved doorways as high as the ceiling, and each has holes for a peg and for the monk's pole or valagni [The valagni was used for hanging the monk's clothes or his begging bowl On.]. There is no trace of a bench. The veranda was about 10' broad and 4' deep with in front of it two eight-sided pillars and two pilasters. Both the pillars and the right pilaster have disappeared. Only parts of the left pilaster and pillar remain. A band of rock dressed like a beam of wood rests on the tops of the pillars and pilasters, and over this beam a stone cave projects about one foot. Over the cave the rock is carved as if into rafter ends, and above the rafter ends is a band of moulding and over the moulding a belt about a foot broad carved in the rail pattern. The rock-roof which is now much broken, projects about two feet in front of the rail.
Cave VI: Cave VI is close beyond Cave V. Between them was a cell which, as its partition wall is broken, now appears to be part of Cave VI. Cave VI is a four-celled dwelling cave, whose floor, like the floor of Cave V, has been hollowed out and turned into a large cistern. Marks in the right cell seem to show that gunpowder was used in blasting the rock. The cave is now filled with earth and stones.
The veranda was about 15' broad, 5' deep, and 6' 6" high, and there were three cells in its back wall and one in its right end wall, making the whole a four-celled dwelling or, as is mentioned in inscription 6, a chaugabhbha layana. In the walls of all of the cells are holes for pegs. Along the veranda front are two plain eight-sided pillars and two four-sided pilasters. Along the tops of these pillars the rock is dressed like a wooden beam with at intervals of about three feet the projecting ends of four cross beams which support an upper frieze. Each of the beam-ends is carved into a Buddhist trident with an umbrella over the middle tooth. The frieze above rests on rafters whose ends stand out an inch or two from the face. Above are a small and a larger band of rounded moulding, and above the moulding a belt of rail about a foot broad. Above the rail the rock overhangs about three feet.
Inscription 6: In the back wall of the veranda, between the doorways of the middle and left cells, is a deep-cut and well-preserved inscription 6.
Cave VII: Cave VII, which is close beyond Cave VI, has like it been turned into a cistern which is now filled with earth. It was originally a dwelling cave of one cell (about 7' X 6' X 6' 6") with an open front. The cell had a grooved doorway and a benched recess in its right wall. In what remains of the left side wall of the open front there seems to have been a relic-shrine or chaitya. In the back wall of the open front to the left of the doorway is an inscription 7 originally in five lines but now almost defaced.
Cave VIII: Cave VIII, close beyond Cave VII, is a small dwelling cave or layana, consisting of a veranda and an inner cell. The cell is 7' 9" square and 7' high. In the right wall is a benched recess 7' 2" long, 2' 5" broad and 2' above the ground. In the back and front walls are holes for pegs and for the monk's pole. There is a grooved doorway 2' 4" wide and 6' 10" high. The veranda is 12' 5" broad and 3' 9" deep. Originally along the veranda front were two eight-sided plain pillars and two four-sided pilasters; but except their tops, the left pilaster and both the pillars are gone. On the east face of the right pilaster is' the well known double crescent ornament. As is mentioned above, the right half of the veranda floor has been broken; and the partition wall that divided the veranda from Cave VII has been blasted away with powder. To the left of the veranda is a cistern. In the back wall of the veranda on either side of the doorway is an inscription.
Inscription 9: Inscription 9, to the left of the doorway, small but well-preserved, is in two lines of clear though small and somewhat shallow letters.
Cave IX: Cave IX, which is close beyond Cave VIII and almost opposite the end of the path down the hill, is a small dwelling cave in two parts, a veranda and three cells. Two of the cells are in the back wall of the veranda and one is on the left end wall. The cell in the left end wall of the veranda is 6' 5" deep, 6' 7" broad, and 6' 3" high, with a grooved doorway 2' 5" wide and 6' 3" high. In its back wall is a benched recess (2' 1" X 2' 8") and in its right wall are holes for pegs. The left cell in the back wall of the veranda is 5' 10" deep, 6' 4" broad and 6' 1" high, with a grooved doorway 2' 5" broad and 5' 11" high. In its back wall is benched recess (2' 2" x 2' 2") with boles for pegs. The right cell in the back wall of the veranda is 8' 7" deep, 8' 8" broad and 6' 8" high with a grooved doorway 2' 9" wide and 6' 6" high. In its right wall is a benched recess (2' 5" X 2' 2"). A doorway 2' 4" wide and 6' 2" high in the back wall leads to an inner cell 6' 10" deep, 7' 4" broad and 6' 7" high. In its back wall is a benched recess (2' 8" x 2' 9"). In the seat are holes, probably modem, for fitting a wooden frame-work. Rope-rings and grain-husking holes in the cells show that the cave has been used for tying cattle. The veranda is 4' 5" deep, 19' 4" broad and 7' 1" high. In its front are two pillars and two pilasters. The pillars are eight-sided shafts without bases and with inverted pot capitals of the Satakarni type. The pilasters are four-sided and have the double crescent ornament. On the front faces of the capitals of the pillars and pilasters are animals which, except the tigers, are well carved. On the right pilaster is a single tiger with his right fore-leg folded across his left fore-leg. On the right pillar are two elephants seated back to back with riders; the right elephant holds a woman by his trunk. The left pillar has two well-carved bulls, the right bull with his head close to the ground and the left bull biting his hind foot. On the left pilaster is an antelope in the act of rising.
Five broken steps lead from the veranda down to the front court which is 8' long and 14' 10" broad. Its floor is rough and its right side wall is broken. The left side wall, which is entire is 8' long. In the right of the court is a cistern full of earth. It is surprising that so well finished a cave should have no inscription. Below, and partly under the front court is a large cistern. Above the cistern, on a slightly lower level than Cave IV, is a cell too small, and plain to deserve a separate number. Its left side wall has been left uneven so as not to cut into the corner of one of the cells in Cave X. This part has been broken, and there is now a large opening into Cave X.
Cave X: Cave X, close beyond this cell, is a large dwelling cave, alike in plan but plainer than Cave III. What ornament there is, especially the animal pillar capitals, is as good as, if not better than, the carving in Cave III. Cave X is in three parts, a hall, sixteen cells, and a veranda. The hall is 45' 6" deep, 40' broad in front, and 44' 6" broad at the back. The height is 9' 9". There are six cells in the back wall of the hall, and five in each side wall. In a recess in the middle of the back wall between the doorways of the third and fourth cells, there was, as in Cave III, a relic-shrine or chaitya in halt relief with a dancing woman on each side. Probably about the eleventh or twelfth century, this relic-shrine was turned into a large figure of Bhairava. The figure is 6' high and 2' 3" across the chest. It holds a dagger or chharo in the right hand and a mace in the left and, wears a large garland or mala, which falls from the shoulders over the arms to within three inches of the ankles. The head ornament is lost; it was probably a hood or a top-knot of curled hair. On either side of Bhairava the dancing women which belonged to the relic-shrine, are still kept as attendants [The image of Bhairava is probably of the same age as the Jain images, in Cave XI. The Jains worship Bhairava as the protector or agent of the Jain church or community not as, the terrible god of the Shaivas or Shaktas. The Jains do not offer him flesh or blood sacrifices, but fruit and Sweetmeats.]. Over Bhairava the Buddhist tee capital, three umbrellas and two flags may still be seen. On either side of the tee is a hold probably for pegs to support curtains or to hang flower garlands or ornaments over the relic-shrine.
The cells have no continued bench in front of them as in Cave III and their floor is on a level with the hall floor. They vary in depth from 7' to 10', in breadth from 7' to 9' and in height from 7' to 8'; they have grooved doorways about 2' 3" broad. Each has a bench along its back wall 2' broad and 3' high and in some the pegs to support the monk's pole or valagni remain.
The hall has one main door, 6' 1" broad and 9' 5" high and on either side of it a smaller doorway, each about 2’ 9" wide and 7' 6" high. Between the main door and each side door is a window, the right window 5' 2" broad and 3' 11" high, and the left window 4' 11" broad and 4' 2" high. All the three doors and windows have grooves for wooden frames.
The veranda is 37' 4" broad, 9' 4" deep and 11' 9" high; its floor is on a level with the hall floor and its ceiling is 2' higher than the hall ceiling. In each end wall of the veranda is a cell, the left cell 9' deep, 7' 5" broad and 7' high, with a grooved door 2' 9" wide and 7' high, and a bench along the back wall 2' 5" broad and 2' 6" high. The right cell is 7' 6" deep, 8' 7" broad and 7' high, with a grooved doorway 2' 10" wide and 7' high and along the right wall a benched recess, the bench 2' 6" high, and 2' 3" broad. In front of the veranda are four pillars and two attached pillars or three quarter pilasters, all bf the Satakarni type. On the veranda floor rest four plates, each smaller than the one below it. On the top plate is a round moulding and on the moulding a large water-pot about 1' 6" high and 9' 6" round. From the mouth of the water-pot rises an eight-sided shaft ending in an inverted pot capital. On the bottom of the inverted pot rests a square box with open sides and faces carved in the rail pattern. Inside of the box is a rounded moulding carved in the myrobalan or amalaka style. Above top plate, separated by a beam of rock, are two groups of animal capitals, some of the animals real, others fanciful. Inside the veranda on the right pilaster are two animals seated back to back; the right animal a tiger looking back, the left a fanciful animal with curious branching horns. The first pillar has two fanciful animals sitting back to back, each with a tiger's body, the beak of a bird, and uplifted ears. The second pillar has two tigers back to back. The third has two sphinxes. The fourth has a horned goat on the right and a hornless goat on the left. The left pilaster has two tigers, the left tiger looking forward and the right tiger resting its face on its crossed forelegs; the position is natural and the carving good. Outside the veranda on the front face of the capitals returning from left to right, the left pilaster has a single lion with a rider. The first pillar has two bulls back to back with a rider on each; the second pillar has two elephants back to back with a rider and a driver on each; the third pillar also has two elephants back to back, each with a driver and rider; the fourth pillar has two lions back to back, each with a rider; and the right pilaster has two elephants each with a driver and rider.
In the veranda are four inscriptions (10, 11, 12, 13), well preserved.
Inscription 14: There are two weather-worn inscriptions (14 and 15) in the court. Of Inscription 14 which is on the right wall of the court the weather has worn away the beginning of each line, the injury increasing from the top downwards. After the first eleven lines there is an empty space with room for two or three lines and then about four lines of writing.
Inscription 15: Inscription 15 is on the left wall of the court. The first seven lines are entire but uneven, as the space is taken up by the trunk of one of the elephants in the capital of the left pilaster. The letters are not deep cut; and time and weather have worn away the right side of the inscription.
Cave XI: Cave XI, close beyond Cave X, but on a higher level, is a small dwelling cave or layana, consisting of a veranda, a small hall, a cell, and a half cell. The hall is 11' 8" broad, 6' 10" deep and 6' 8" high, with a grooved door 2' 7" wide and 6' 8" high. In its back wall to the left is a half cell 7' 3" deep, 5' 7" broad, and as high as the hall. Along its back and left walls is a continued bench 2' 3" high and 2' 2" broad. In the hall to right of the back wall is a small recess which in later times has been broken and a hole made through to the first cell in the right wall of the hall of Cave X.
That this is only a recess, not a cell, as it would have been had not the cell in Cave X, interfered, shows that this cave is later than Cave X. There may have been a small bench in the recess, but as the lower part is broken no trace of the bench remains. In the part of the back wall between the recess and the half cell is blue figure of a Jaina saint or Tirthankar, of about the eleventh century. It seems to be Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankar, as his hair falls on his shoulders, a peculiarity of that saint. The figure is in the cross-legged or padmasana mudra and 2' 3" high. Below his seat are two tigers looking forward, and between the tigers is the Dharmachakra. Near the left leg of the image is something like a small child, probably the son of the person who paid for the carving of the image. The throne-back of the image has on each side the usual alligators or makaras, and round the face is an aureole. On either side of the face a human figure floats through the air bearing a garland, and outside of each figure is a small fly-whisk bearer. Above the aureole are three umbrellas each smaller than the one below it, denoting the sovereignty over the three worlds, trailokyadhipatya. At the extreme top are two floating figures with fly-whisks. In the right wall, to the left is an image of the Jaina goddess Ambika and to the right an image of the Jaina demi-god Vira Manibhadra. Ambika sits cross-legged on a lion under a mango-tree in which are a cleverly carved monkey and some birds. In her lap is an infant and to the right of the infant is a boy with a fly-whisk. Ambika has her hair in a large roll drawn to the left side of her head; she wears ear-rings and it necklace. What she carried in her right hand is broken; it must have been the mango branch with fruit which is prescribed in Jaina books. To the right of the image is a standing figure of a bearded man with an umbrella in his right hand and a conch shell in his left, probably a worshipper. The entire image of Ambika with her lion is 2' 9" high. Manibhadra is a male figure sitting on an elephant, his toes drawn under him, and his hands resting on his knees. He held something in his hands, but it is too broken to be made out. This group is 3' 5" high including the elephant. He wears a four-storeyed conical crown and a sacred thread. In the left wall of the hall is a cell 6' 2" broad, 6' 5" deep and 6' 8" high, with a door 2' 5" broad and 6' 8" high. Its floor and ceiling are on the same level as the hall. The veranda is 10' 4" broad and 3' 11" deep. Its floor was originally on a level with the hall floor, but it is now much broken. Its ceiling is about two inches higher than the hall ceiling. To the left of the veranda, is a benched recess. In front, above the veranda, is a band of rail about a foot broad supported on a double line of moulding and a beam-like band with outstanding rafter ends. At present part of the floor of the veranda, part of its side walls and of the seat, are broken; and there is no access to the cave except through the hole mentioned above which must have been made in later times to communicate with the first cell in the east wall of the hall of Cave X.
In the back wall of the veranda, to the right of the doorway and close under the ceiling, is Inscription 16 in two lines.
Cave XII: Cave XII is close beyond Cave XI but on a lower level, being partly below its veranda floor. It is a small dwelling cave or layana consisting of a veranda and a cell. Of the veranda no trace is left. The front wall of the cell is also broken and the cell is partly filled with earth and is useless as a residence. The cell is 11' 10" broad, 7' 11" deep and about 8' high. There are holes for the monk's pole or valagni and along the right wall is a benched recess.
In the back wall of the veranda, to the left of the broken doorway, is Inscription 17 in five entire and a sixth part line. The letters at the right end of the lines, though not difficult to make out, are weather-worn.
Cave XIII: Caves XIII and XIV are close to one another, just beyond Cave XII. As their partition wall and veranda ceiling are broken they seem to be one cave, but their structure shows that they were originally two separate dwelling caves.
Cave XIII: Cave XIII is in three parts, a veranda, a middle room, and cells. The veranda was 12' 8" broad, 4' deep and 7' 2" high. It is now ruined, but its height, breadth and depth can be known from its floor and a well-preserved part in the right comer. The middle room is 11' 8" broad and 7' 7" deep, and 6' 10" high, with along the right wall a benched recess 2' 8" high, 7' 2" long and 2' 5" broad. In the back wall of the middle room are two cells, the right cell 6' 9" high, 7' 3" deep and 6' 9" broad, with a grooved door 2' 4" wide and 6' 9" high. The left cell which is 7' 1" deep, 6' 10" broad and 7' high, has along the back a benched recess 2' broad and 2' 3" high. Its door is 2' 3" broad and 6' 10" high.
Cave XIV: Cave XIV is close to Cave XIII but 1' 6" higher. Its entire right wall which was originally the partition between Caves XIII and XIV and most of its ceiling are broken. It consists of two parts, a veranda, and cells in its back wall. The veranda is 14' 11" broad, 5' 11" deep and 6' 7" high. In front of the veranda appear to have been two pilasters of which only the left with the usual double crescent ornament remains. Outside of the veranda the front face of the floor is carved in the rail pattern. Most of the veranda ceiling is broken. In the back wall of the veranda are three cells, the right cell 6' broad, 9' 2" deep and 6' 9" high, the partition between it and Cave XIII being broken. There is a bench in a recess 2' 6" broad and 2' 2" high. Its door, which was originally grooved, is broken. The middle cell is 5' 3" broad, 9' deep and 6' 10" high, with a grooved doorway 2' broad and 6' 10" high, and along the back wall a benched recess 2' 6" broad and 2' 5" high. The left cell is 6' 8" broad, 9' 2" deep and 6' 9" high, with a grooved doorway 2' 2" wide and 6' 7" high, and along the back wall is a benched recess 2' 6" broad and 2' high. Probably both these dwelling caves had inscriptions on the broken front.
Close beyond Cave XIV is a cistern in a recess containing good water. In the left wall of the recess is a woman's face with large round ear-rings. It is probably a late work representing Shitala, the small-pox goddess, who is generally shown simply by a head.
About ninety feet to the left of' the cistern is an empty space where cutting was begun but given up on account of a fissure in the rock.
XV: Cave XV, close beyond
the vacant space is a shrine-like cell, made about the sixth century
by Buddhists of the Mahayana sect. The carving of Buddha, Bodhisattva
and Nagaraja is like that of the sixth century images in the
On the left wall is a Buddha seated cross-legged in the teaching position or dharmachakra mudra over a lotus. The image is 3' 8" high and 3' 3" across the knees. The stalk of the lotus on which Buddha sits is supported by two Nagarajas. The Nagaraja's head-dress is a five-hooded cobra over a crown; the hair hanging behind in curls in the Sassanian style. From either side of the stem a branch shoots forth about two feet broad with buds and leaves. Behind Buddha is a pillow and round the face is an aureole. To the right and left of the central image are six images of Buddha, three on each side, 1' 7" high sitting cross-legged on lotus-seats one above the other. Of these the two lower images on the left are broken.
On the right wall there seems to have been an image of Buddha like that on the back wall. All that remains is part of the back of his throne with crocodiles, traces of the feet of the two Bodhisattvas, and two Buddhas over the Bodhisattvas. There seem also to have been standing Buddhas on each side of the doorway; only traces of their feet are left. To the right of Cave XV are two excavations which look like recesses. The work seems to have been stopped because of the badness of the rock
XVI: Cave XVI is about twenty feet above Cave XV of some rock-cut
steps which originally led to it, from near the front of Cave XV, almost
no trace is left. The only way of access to Cave XVI is by an iron staircase
of nineteen steps which was set up about 1880 by a Lohana merchant of
Cave XVII: About forty feet beyond and sixteen feet higher than Cave XV is Cave XVII. The space between Caves XV and XVII was left empty because the rock was seamy and unfit for working. At some later time the rock seems to have been blasted with gunpowder and reservoirs made which are now filled with earth and stones.
Its inscription seems to show that Cave XVII was intended to, be a dwelling-cave with a shrine attached. The shrine-room or chaitya-griha is mentioned in the inscription but it was never completed, and has, been turned into a cell with a bench 3' 9" broad and 2' high. This cell is 8' deep and 7' broad and 7' 8" high, with a doorway 3' 9" broad and 7' high. In front of the door a piece of rock, in form like an altar, has been left unworked probably to make ornamental steps. In later times a shalunkha or linga-case has been cut in the rock and a linga inserted. In front of the cell is a passage 22' broad, 4' deep and 11' 4" high. In the back wall of the passage to the right of the cell door, in a shallow recess a four feet high Buddha stands on a lotus in the gift position or vara mudra. This is a sixth century addition of about the same time as the images in other caves. In front of the passage are two pillars and two pilasters with animal capitals on the front and back. On the pillars between the groups of animals runs a beam-like band of rock and on the beam rests the roof. The pillars and pilasters are plain and four-sided. It was probably intended to make round shafts with pot-shaped bases, but they are rough and unfinished. At the top of the pillar is a capital of five plates each larger than the one below. Over the topmost plate, on either side of the beam, carved animals sit back to back with riders and drivers. The dress of the riders and drivers is curious and is, valuable as evidence of the style of dress which was in use before the time of Nahapana. On the inner face of both pilasters a man rides a fanciful animal with the beak of a bird, the body of a tiger, and uplifted ears. On the inner face of both pillars are two elephants back to back, each with a driver and rider. On the outer face of the pilasters is a single elephant with a driver and two riders, a man and a boy. On the outer face of the right pillar, the driver of the right hand elephant wears a high turban and holds a good or dhoka with a handle, not a hook; the rider is a boy. The driver of the left elephant is a woman with a curious head-dress. The riders are a man and a boy, the man with a curious head-dress. In his right hand he holds a pat such as is used in worship.
On the outer face of the left pillar two elephants sit back to back. The right elephant is driven by a man and ridden by a woman and a girl. The woman's dress is much like that now worn by Vanjari women with a; central and two side bosses of hair. The left elephant is driven and ridden by men.
In front of these pillars is a hall 22' 9" broad, 32' deep and 11' 4" high. Its floor is on, a level with the floor of the inner passage and the ceiling is of the same height as the porch ceiling. In its right wall are four cells the one in the extreme (visitor's) left unfinished. The floors of the second and third cells are on a level with the hall floor but the floor of the right or fourth cell is about 1' 6" higher, and is entered by a step. The left and the third cells have no bench the second and fourth have benches along the back wall. At each end of the left wall of the hall is a small cell and between the cells a large narrow benched recess 18' 6" long, 2’ broad and 2' 6" high. The right cell is unfinished; the left cell is very small and in making it much care had to be taken lest it should break into Cave XVIII the great chapel or chaitya cave. A modem hole shows the thinness of the partition of rock.
The hall has a large main door 4' 10" broad and 10' high and on its left a small door 2' 8" broad and 8' 4" high. On either side of the main door is a window the right one 3' 8" broad, 3' 5" high, and the left one 3' broad and 3' 8" high. Over the small door and window in the back wall of the veranda is Inscription 18 in three and a quarter lines. The letters are large, deep and well-preserved.
The veranda is 6' 2" deep, 31' broad and 12' 2" high. In front of the veranda are two pillars and two attached three-quarter pillars. On entering, to the west of the right three-quarter pillar is a little rough piece of wall which seems to have been intended for a fourth pillar but left unfinished. In the right or west end of the veranda is an unfinished cell. Between the pillars five steps lead down to the front court but these steps are not, as is usual, in front of the main door but, between the main door and the small door, opposite the left window. Some mistake seems to have been made in the construction of the cave. The pillars and pilasters are of the Satakarni style with large water-pot bases eight sided shafts and inverted water-pot capitals with rail boxes, a pile of five plates, and animal capitals, Closely like the pillars in Cave X. On the inner face of the capital of the east pilaster are two animals back to back with the mouths of birds, the bodies of tiger and erect ears; each is ridden by a woman. On the inner face of the first pillar capital are two elephants back to back each driven by a man and ridden by a woman. On the second pillar are two lions back to back, a woman riding the right one and a man riding the left one. The head-dress of both is curious, a braided knot of hair or ambodo with five plates in front. On the inner face of the left pilaster are two elephants the right elephant with bath a rider and a driver, and the left one with only a rider. On the front faces of bath pillars and pilasters two elephants sit back to back. On the left or east pilaster the left elephant is driven by a man and ridden by a boy and the right elephant is driven by a woman and ridden by a man and a boy. On the first pillar the left elephant is driven by a man and ridden by a bay, and the right elephant is driven by a man and ridden by two women. The first woman's head-dress is a curious circular disc, the second's head-dress has three bunches or jhumkhas like a Vanjari woman's. The second woman stretches her left hand to help a third woman to mount. On the second pillar the left elephant is driven by a man and ridden by two women, the foremost of whom raises her folded hands over her head in salutation. The right elephant is driven by a man and ridden by a man and a boy. On the left pilaster the left elephant is driven by one man and ridden by two others, and the right elephant has one driver and one rider.
A frieze about two feet broad stands out about two feet from the animal capitals. It is supported by a belt of rock carved at intervals of foot in imitation of wooden rafters whose ends, which were alternately plain and carved in woman's faces, stand about two inches beyond the base of the frieze. Above the base of the frieze is a plain rounded moulding and above the moulding a rail with four horizontal bars together about fifteen inches broad. Above the frieze overhangs a much-broken eave of rock.
In front of the veranda is the court whose floor is 2' 4" below the veranda. It was originally 28' 3" broad and 14' long, but now nearly half of it is broken. To the left of the court is a broken cistern with one step leading to it. In the hall are several rope rings and rice-husking holes showing that the cave has been used for stabling horses and as a granary.
Cave XVIII: Cave XVIII is close beyond Cave XVII, but six feet lower. It is the chapel or. chaitya cave, the centre of the whole group. It is 39' 6" deep and near the doorway 21' 6" broad. The roof is vaulted and the inner end rounded. It is surrounded by a row of pillars which cut off an aisle about four feet broad Twenty-six feet from the doorway is the relic-shrine or daghoba 12' high, of which 5' 4" is the height of the plinth, 3' the height of the dome, and 2' 10" of the plates and the tee. The circumference of the plinth is 16' 8". Above the plinth is a belt of rail tracery 9" broad, and over the rail, separated by a terrace 4' broad is a rather oval semi-circular dome 3' high and 14' 7" in circumference. Over the dome is a shaft 10" high and 1' 3" broad with two bands in the rail. The top of the shaft broadens about four inches on the east and west sides and supports on outstanding framework, the bottom of which is carved into four rafters whose ends stand out from the face. This framework supports four plates each about three inches broad and each larger than the plate below. Over the top of the fourth plate is a fifth plate about six inches broad whose face is carved in the rail pattern. In the middle of this plate is a round hole for the umbrella stem, and at the comers are four small -round holes for flags.
each side of the chapel is a row of five pillars, leaving a central
space 8' 9" broad and side aisles with a breadth of 3' 6".
Behind the relic-shrine is a semi-circular apse with a row of five pillars
separated from the wall by a passage 3' 6" broad. The five pillars
in front of the relic-shrine an either side are plain eight-sided shafts
with water-pot bases in the Satakarni style; the five behind the relic-shrine
are plain eight-sided shafts without bases. The pillars on the left
side have no capitals; those on the right have rough square blacks as
if left to be carved into capitals. Along the tops of the pillars which
are 13' 8" high, runs a band of rock dressed like a beam of timber
6" deep. Above the beam the wall rises straight for 4' 4"
and then curves in a dame 4' 6" deep. At the top of the perpendicular
part of the wall, as at Karle and Bhaja in
Inscription 19: Engraved in four vertical lines, on the fifth and sixth pillars of the right-hand row is Inscription 19. Though not very deep cut, the letters are large and well-preserved. The four lines on the two pillars, when read together, make up the text of the inscription.
Inscription 20: The doorway is 4' broad and 7' 4" high. Over the doorway a Buddhist horse-shoe arch stands out about two feet from the face of the cave and is supported an eleven ribs. Under the arch is Inscription 20 in one line. The letters which are well cut and distinct, are older than the letters of Inscription 19.
Under the arch, as in the cells near the Bhut Ling cave, in the south or Manmoda group at Junnar, are figures of horses, elephants, bulls and tigers in the spaces between the bars of an irregularly flowing rail. In the middle is the favourite Buddhist pentagonal symbol over the trident enclosing a lotus flower. Between the teeth of the trident are two tigers rampant, and in the middle of the pentagonal symbol is a minute standing human figure. Below the bottom bar of the rail is a semi-circle whose front is carved in a lattice tracery of six-leaved flowers. The left door post or shakha is richly carved in an elaborate tracery of peacocks, human figures and flowers, in a pattern which occurs an the front of the arch of the Queen's cave at Udayagiri in Orissa. To the left of the post a standing Yaksha holds a lotus in his right hand, and the end of his waist-band in his left. Close to his left hand begins the rail pattern of the stairs which lead to cave XIX. Most of the carving on the right door post is destroyed.
Inscription 21: On the plain rounded moulding to the right about six feet above the Yaksha is Inscription 21. The letters closely resemble those of Inscription 19. The beginning is worn away.
On either side of the horse-shoe arch, is a band of plain rounded moulding, an the left half of which inscription 20 is cut. Above the moulding is a beam with outstanding rafter-like ends, alternately plain and carved into women's heads. Above the beam is a band of rail about a foot broad with three horizontal rails. Above the rail is a terrace about six feet broad, and above the terrace, over the small horse-shoe arch below, is a large horse-shoe arch 8' 10" high, 10' 5" broad and 4' 2" deep, supported on eleven rock-cut rafters through which light passes into the cave. In the back of the main arch is an inner arch, 8' high, 8' '5" broad and 5" deep. The inner arch is grooved, the grooves being probably intended to hold a wooden framework. On either side of the large horse-shoe arch near the foot is a massive rail, and above the rail is a narrow outstanding belt supported on rafter ends. Above this belt on each side are two pillars and pilasters in Satakarni style with reversed bell-shaped rather than pot-shaped animal capitals. On the capital of the left pilaster are two, bulls seated back to back; the left pillar has two horses similarly seated and the third pillar has two elephants. On the third pillar to the west of the arch are two bulls, one of them broken, on the fourth pillar are two tigers, and on the west pilaster are two animals whose heads are broken. Between each pair of pillars below is a relic-shrine in half relief, shaped much like the relic-shrine in the chapel. Over each relic-shrine is a band of rail, and over the rail are small horse-shoe arches. Round the relic-shrine and the small arches is beautifully executed lattice work of various designs. On each side of the main arch between it and the nearest pillar and on a level with the animal capital is an erect cobra with expanded hood. Over the main arch rise three bands of moulding each standing out further than the band below it. These bands are plain except that out of the middle band project the ends of rock-cut rafters. Over the third band is a small rail. Above on each side of the peak of the great arch, are two smaller arches, and between each pair of arches are broken figures of men and women. Above are two small bands of rail tracery and in the upper band four minute arches. In the side walls of the recess in front of the chapel face which are almost entirely broken away are broken arches and other traces of ornament.
Cave XIX: Cave XIX is close beyond Cave XVIII, and below the court of the Cave XX. It is so filled with earth and the space in front is so blocked with stones that it can be only entered sitting. It is a dwelling-cave for monks and is the oldest in the group. It is in three parts, a veranda, a hall, and six cells. The hall is 14' broad, 14' deep and about 8' high. In its back wall and in each of its side walls are two cells, or six cells in all. Over the doorway of each cell is a horse-shoe arch and between each pair of arches is a band of rail tracery one foot broad, carved in the ordinary style except in the space between the side-cells where it is waving. The cells are about 6' 4" broad and 7' 2" deep; all of them are partly filled with earth. The benches, if there are benches, are hid under the earth. Holes for the monk's pole or valagni remain. The doorways of the cells are grooved, 2' wide, and about 6' high. The walls of the hall and cells are well-chiselled and the whale work is accurate and highly finished. The gateway of the hall is three feet broad and on either side of it is a window with stone lattice work.
22: On the upper sill of
the right window is inscription 22 in two lines. The letters in this,
which is the oldest of
The veranda is 16' broad and 4' 2" deep, and its ceiling is about 7" lower than the hall ceiling. In front of the veranda, are two pilasters and two pillars eight-sided in the middle of the shaft and square in the upper part, in the style found at Girnar in Kathiavad and at Udayagiri in Orissa. Along the tops of the pillars runs a belt of rock dressed like a beam of timber, and over the beam the roof stood out, but is now broken, this cave, the oldest and one of the most interesting in the group, is being rapidly destroyed by water and earth. Steps have been taken to channelise the water outside but yet some water finds its way into the cave.
Cave XX: Cave XX is to the left of Cave XVIII on a fifteen feet higher level, and approached from Cave XVIII bra staircase of nineteen broken steps. As noted above, the railing for this staircase is cut in the front wall of Cave XVIII, beginning from the left of the doorway. This cave seems to have been mare than once altered. It was originally like the third cave, a large dwelling for monks, with a central hall, 45' deep and 41' broad, six cells in the right and in the left side walls and probably as many in the back wall, with a bench all round in front of the cells. The inscription in the back wall of the veranda recording the excavation says that this cave was begun by an ascetic named Bopaki, that it long remained unfinished and that it was completed by Vasu, the wife of a general named Bhavagopa, and given for the use of monk in the seventh year of Gotamiputra Yajnashri Satakarni. The usual practice in excavating caves was to complete the work so far as it went. If this practice was followed in the present case Bopaki must have finished the veranda and the doorway and done some cutting inside, while Bhavagopa's wife must have done the cells and the hall. Bhavagopa's wife does not seem to have finished the work. The bench along the left wall is still rough and probably the fifth and sixth cells in that wall were left unfinished, as the work in them seems to be later. About four centuries after Bhavagopa's wife completed most of the cave, the back wall seems to have been broken down and the cave cut deeper into the hill. The line between the original ceiling and the ceiling of the addition shows that the addition is 46' long, of which 15' 6" is in the present hall and the rest has been used as a Mahayana shrine. In the addition two cells were cut in the right wall and the fifth and sixth cells in the right wall, left incomplete by Bhavagopa's wife, were improved. This appears from the style of their doorways which is slightly different from the style of the doorways of the other old cells. In the back wall a shrine was made a little to the right of the middle, with two cells one en its left and one all its right. It is in two parts, a garbhagara or inner shrine and a porch or tibari. The shrine is 14' bread, 14' deep and 12' 4" high. In the back wall of the shrine is a colossal Buddha, 10' high and 4' across the shoulders, seated on a lion-throne in the teaching position, his feet resting on a small altar or dais [It may be noted here that the Buddha image is no more worshipped though some visitors do after flowers. There is also no Gurav now to look after the shrine.]. On either side of the image the back of the throne is ornamented with the usual sculpture of elephants, above them imaginary horned lions or Shardulas with riders, and above them crocodiles swallowing waterfowl, and above the crocodiles a Nagaraja. Buddha's face is surrounded by an aureole. In the side walls, an Buddha's left and right is a flywhisk bearer 8' 8" high. The left fly-whisk bearer has matted hair with a relic-shrine an the middle of the forehead. In his left hand he holds a lotus stalk and in his right hand a fly-whisk. The right flywhisk bearer has a crown on his head, his left hand rests on his waist-band, and his right hand holds the fly-whisk. They are bath Bodhisattvas. Above each a Vidyadhara and his wife fly towards Buddha. The door of the shrine which is grooved and plain, is 4' 3" broad and 8' 6" high. The porch in front of the floor has a floor about two feet lower than the shrine-door. The porch is 19' 10" broad, 10' 6" deep and 12' 5" high. In its back wall on each side of the doorway is the figure of a Bodhisattva 9' 5" high. Both have matted hair and stand in the safety position or abhayamudra with a rosary in the fight hand. The left Bodhisattva holds a lotus stalk in his left hand of which the top and the lower part are broken; the right Bodhisattva holds in his left hand a lotus stalk with a bud. To the right of the left Bodhisattva a crowned male figure. 5' 7" high, holds a lotus flower and leaf in his right hand and rests his left hand on his waist-band. The nose of this figure has been broken and a new nose fastened on and a moustache and a short beard added, all of some hard sticky material. To the right of the right Bodhisattva is a female figure five feet high. Her nose, eyes and brow have been broken and repaired with the same sticky material as the male figure. She has a curious lofty head-dress like that worn by some sixth century figures. In her right ear is a large round ear-ring and in both her hands she holds a garland. A robe falls from the waist to the feet. The male and female figures are probably of Mamma who made this shrine and her husband, or they may be Mamma's mother and father. All these figures appear to have been formerly smeared with oil and as they have a second coating of smoke their ornaments are greatly dimmed. In the right and left walls of the porch are two cells, one in each wall, probably for the use of the worshipping priest or for keeping materials used in the worship.
front of the porch are two pillars and two pilasters. The ornament of
the pilasters and pillars is the same as that of several
The hall has eight cells in the side walls though one of them, the second in the right wall, is not a cell but an excavation with no front. The bench along the right wall has bench dressed and finished, while half of the left wall bench has been dressed but the other half towards the door is unfinished.
Except the sixth and seventh cells, counting from the shrine in the left wall the cells have no benches. In front of the fifth, sixth and seventh cells in the right wall a line of four different sized circles or chakras are cut in the floor. They were probably used to grind grain on at a later date but are not modern as they are higher than the rest of the floor. Their original use was perhaps connected with the arti or waving of lights round the image of Buddha. At present the Nepalese Buddhist light-waving ceremonies consist of three parts. The officiating priest first strikes the bell; he then pours water from an earthen pot in four circles which may not be crossed. After the four rings of water have been poured the priest lifts on his left shoulder a heavy wooden pole and grasping the lower end with his right hand strikes the pole with a second smaller staff. The sound is called gambhira ghosha or the solemn sound, and is regarded as very holy. These four circles may represent the four rings of water.
The entrance into the hall is by a large grooved doorway, 5' 7" broad and 9' high, with a small doorway to the left 3' 5" broad and 7' 8" high, and one grooved window on either side of the main doorway, 4' 3" broad and 3' 2" high.
23: Over the doorway of,
the last cell from the shrine in the left wall is Inscription 3 in two
small lines in well-cut letters of the fifth or sixth century. It is
in Sanskrit and is the most modern of the
The veranda is 34' 3" broad, 7' 9" deep and 10' high with a cell in its left end wall. Along the front of the veranda are four pillars and two attached three quarter pillars. These pillars are plain in the Satakarni pot-capital style. A band of rock dressed like a beam of timbers rests on the top of the pillars, and over the beam the rock-roof overhangs about three feet. Between the second and third pillars, facing the main door, three steps lead down to a court 30' 10" broad and 7' 9" deep, and 1' 10" lower than the veranda floor. Along the veranda face below the pillars is a belt of upright bars about eight inches high. A doorway in the left wall of the court which is now broken led to Cave XXI.
Inscription 24: In the back wall of the veranda to the left of the main doorway, above the left side door and the left window, is Inscription 24. It is blackened by smoke and is not easily seen, but the letters are well-cut and easily read.
This cave was occupied by a Vairagi who walled of the right comer of the veranda as a cell for himself and raised in the hall a clay altar for his god. He was murdered in January 1883 by a Koli for his money.
Fair: In honour of the colossal Buddha which is locally worshipped as Dharmaraja, a large fair, attended by about 600 persons from Nasik and the surrounding villages, is held on the third Monday in Shravana (July-August) when boys dressed in girls' clothes dance to a drum accompaniment and men beat sticks and blow shells. Booths and stalls are set up at the foot of the hill.
Cave XXI: Cave XXI close beyond Cave XX is entered by a broken door in the right wall of the court of Cave XX. It is a rough hall 23' 10" deep and 10' high. In front for 6' 7" the breadth of the hall is 17' 10"; then there is a comer and beyond the comer the breadth is 21' 2". The ceiling of the hall is rough and uneven and in the back part of the cave the roof is about a foot lower than near the front. In front are two pillars and two pilasters. The pillars are eight-sided in the middle and square below and above. In front is a court 9' deep and 17' 7" broad, with a large and deep cistern, to the right, holding water. This hall does not appear to be a dwelling cave as it has no cells or benches; nor has it a bench all round as in dining-halls or bhojana-mandapas. It is probably a sattra, that is, either a cooking place or a place for distributing grain. The large cistern in front seems to be for the convenience of the kitchen. At XXI the broad terrace ends and the rest of the path is rough and in places difficult.
Cave XXII: About thirty-four feet beyond cave XXI and on a slightly higher level, reached by rough rock-cut steps is cave XXII a cell with an open veranda in front. Its side walls are undressed and the back wall is unfinished. Peg holes in the walls and in the grooved door seem to show that it was used as a dwelling. The cell is 9' 8" deep and 5' 4" broad, and the doorway 2' broad. The height cannot be ascertained as the cell is partly filled with clay. The veranda is 5' 7" broad and 3' deep.
Beyond cave XXII there seem to have been two or three excavations, the first of which looks like a cell much filled with earth. The others cannot be seen as they are covered with stones which have fallen from above. They must be small cells of no special interest as the rock is unfit for caves of any size.
Cave XXIII: About twenty-five yards beyond cave XXII, and almost on the same level, is cave XXIII. Marks in the ceiling show that there were originally five or six small dwelling caves with cisterns in front. The first probably was a dwelling cave with one cell and veranda; the second probably consisted of a middle room with a cell and a half cell; the third consisted of a veranda and two cells and the fourth, of a veranda, two cells, and a half cell. The four partitions of these dwelling-caves have been broken down and the whole made into a large irregular hall, but the marks of the old dwelling caves can still be seen in the ceiling. Three Mahayana sixth century shrines have been made in the back wall of the hall, and images have been carved in recesses in the wall. Except in the first shrine this Mahayana work is better than the work in caves II. XV and XVI. Proceeding from right to left the first is a shrine in two parts, an inner shrine or garbhagara, and a porch or tibari. The shrine is 10' broad, 7' 8" deep and 8' 3" high. In the back wall is an image of Buddha sitting on a lion-seat with the usually ornamental back. The image is 7' 4" high from head to foot and 3' across the shoulders. The face is surrounded by an aureole. On each side a Vidyadhara and Vidyadhari bringing materials of worship fly towards Buddha. To the right and left of Buddha are two fly-whisk bearers each 6' 5" high; the right hand fly-whisk bearer has his hair coiled in the matted coronet or jatamugata style and in the hair has a teaching Buddha. He has a fly-whisk in his right hand and a lotus bud with a stalk in his left. The left fly-whisk bearer has broken off from the rock and lies on the ground. He wears a crown, ear-rings, a necklace, and finger rings. He bears a fly-whisk in his right hand and a thunderbolt in his left which rests on his waist-band. In each of the side walls is a Buddha sitting cross-legged over a lotus. They are 5' high and 4' across from knee to knee. The feet of the right image are broken. In either side of each image are three small Buddhas one over the other, 1' 7" high, sitting on lotuses. The middle image is in the padmasana position and the side images are cross-legged in the teaching position. The doorway of the shrine is 2' 10" broad and 6' 3" high. The side posts of the doorway are carved in a twisted pattern with flowers between the turns and by the side of the posts are carved petals. At the foot of each post is a figure of a Nagaraja of which the right figure is broken.
porch is 12' broad, 4' deep and 8' 4"
high. In the back wall on either side of the doorway, is a standing
figure 7' high. The left figure holds a rosary in the left hand
in the blessing position and in the right hand a lotus bud. He wears
his hair in the matted coronet or jatamugata style and in the
middle of the forehead is a small teaching Buddha. This is probably
a figure of Padmapani Lokeshvara. Below on the visitor's left is a female
figure 3' 6" high with her hair in the matted coronet
or jatamugata style. Her right hand is blessing and in her left
hand is a half-blown lotus with stalk. She is the Mahayana goddess Arya
Tara. To the right of the doorway the large standing figure wears a
crown, large ear-rings, a three-stringed necklace of large jewels, a
waist ornament or kandora of four bands and a cloth round the
waist. On a knot of this cloth on his left side rests his left hand
and the right hand is raised above the elbow and holds what looks like
a flower. He wears bracelets and armlets. Below to the right of this
figure is a small broken figure. In each of the end walls of the porch
or tibari is a Buddha in the blessing position 7' 4"
high. Below to the left of the left wall figure, is a small Buddha also
blessing. Between the end wall Buddhas and the figures on either side
of the doorway are two pairs of small blessing Buddhas, one pair on
each side, standing on lotuses. In front of the porch are two pillars
and two pilasters, four-sided below with round capitals of what look
like pots with bands cut on their faces, a very late style. Above the
pillars, under the ceiling are five small cross-legged figures of Buddha
and on either size of each is a Bodhisattva as fly-whisk bearer. Unlike
the five Dhyani Buddhas of
As is shown by marks in the roof, the second shrine has been made from an old dwelling-cave which consisted of a veranda, middle room, a cell, and a half cell. The middle room had on the right a bench which still remains. All other traces of the room have disappeared. Of the cell, the front wall and part of the left wall are broken. The rest of the cell has been deepened into a shrine: The shrine is 7' 8" broad, 6' 6" deep and 7' high. In the back wall is a teaching Buddha 5' high and 2' 3" across the shoulders, seated on a lion-throne with ornamental back. On either side of the Buddha is a fly-whisk bearer, 4' 9" high, his hair in the matted coronet style and an aureole round his face. The bearer to the right of Buddha has a relic-shrine, entwined in his coronet of hair. In his left hand he holds a fly-whisk and in his right a lotus stalk. The left figure has an image of Buddha in his coronet of hair, a fly-whisk in his right hand, and a blown lotus stalk in his left. Above each a heavenly chorister flies towards Buddha with a garland. In the right wall is a seated teaching Buddha 4' 2" high and 1' 9" across the shoulders. On either side was a fly-whisk bearing Bodhisattva smaller than those on the back wall of which the right figure alone remains. Above it a small Bodhisattva about 1' 4" high sits on a throne with an ornamental back and rests his feet on an altar. He bows to Buddha with both hands. His cloth is tied in a knot on his left shoulder, his hair rise in matted circles, and his face is surrounded with an aureole. About the Bodhisattva to the left of Buddha, is a seated figure of nearly the same size, the only difference being that he has a top-knot on the head like Buddha. He wears ear-rings and bracelets and has an aureole. Below the feet of Buddha are two deer and between the deer is the Buddhist wheel or dharmachakra. By the side of each deer in recess is a male and female figure, probably the husband and wife who paid for the carving of the sculpture. On the left wall are three rows with two seated Buddhas in each row about twenty inches high, the head surrounded with an aureole.
The half cell of the same dwelling cave had along the left wall what looks like an attached three-quarter relic-shrine of which the broken base is alone left. The back wall of the recess has been deepened and ornamented by a teaching Buddha seated on the usual throne, his feet resting on a lotus. It is 3' 2" high and 1' 4" across the shoulders. On either side a curly-haired angel in a Sassanian cap flies towards him with flowers. About three feet to the left of the main image, in niche 2' 4" broad and 3' 2" high, is a teaching Buddha, 2' 8" high and 11" across the shoulders seated on a couch. His face is surrounded by an aureole. About five feet to the left, in a smaller recess in the back of the second cell, is a standing Buddha, 2' 7" high, well proportioned and skillfully carved, with an umbrella over his head.
About ten feet to the left of this second recess is the third shrine 7' 2" broad, 7' 6" deep and 7' 4" high. In the back wall is a teaching Buddha, five feet high seated on the usual rich backed throne. He is worshipped as Karna. On either side a figure 5' 2" high holds a flywhisk in the right hand. The figure to the right of Buddha has his hair rising in matted circles which enclose an image of Buddha. The left figure has a crown and curls hanging down his back. In the left hand of the right figure is a lotus flower with stalk and the left figure rests his hand on his waist and holds a thunderbolt. The left figure has no ornaments; the right figure wears ear-rings, a necklace and bracelets. Above each a flying angel carries garlands to Buddha.
In the right wall is a figure 5' 10" high standing on a lotus. He wears a high crown, ear-rings, necklace, armlets and bracelets. The right hand, which seems to have been in the gift or vara position, is broken below the wrist. He rests his left hand on his waist-band. The entire image is surrounded by an aureole. On either side of him four figures each 1' 2" high sit cross-legged, on lotuses one over the other. The lowest on each side is broken. The images to the visitor's left of the central figure are, at the top a Bodhisattva with an aureole round the face wearing a crown, large ear-rings and a necklace. He rests his right hand on his right knee and holds a fruit apparently the Citrus medica or bijorum. In his left hand is a roll probably a palm-leaf manuscript. The third from below is the figure of a goddess; with a long crown, a large ear-ring in the right ear, a necklace and bracelets. She holds in both hands a roll like that held by the last figure, the only difference being that her right hand is raised above the elbow. The next figure is also a goddess with large ear-rings in both ears. She holds a bijorum in her right hand and a manuscript in her left. To the visitor's right, the chief figure is that of a Bodhisattva holding the same things as the topmost left figure, the only difference being that his hand is raised above the left elbow; the third from below like the corresponding left figure, has ear-rings in both ears and holds a citron and a manuscript. The second from below is a goddess like the upper one, the only difference being that her right hand is raised above the elbow, while both hands of the upper figure rest on her knee.
The left wall has a similar large central standing Bodhisattva 5' 2" high, entirely surrounded by an aureole. His right hand holding a rosary is raised above the elbow in the abhaya mudra; the left hand holds the stalk of a large lotus bud. He wears his hair in a matted coronet with a Buddha wound in the hair, and three braids hanging over his shoulder on his breast. He has no ornaments. On either side of him four small figures one over the other correspond to the figures on the right wall. The lowest on each side is broken. To the visitor's left the topmost is a goddess sitting cross-legged wearing a crown, ear-rings and necklace. Her right hand rests on her knee and holds a round fruit like a bijorum; her left hand holds a lotus bud with stalk. The third from below is a second goddess without any ornament. Her hair is piled in matted circles, her right leg is raised and her left leg crossed in front. She rests the elbow of her right hand on her right knee. While the hand is raised in the blessing position and holds a rosary, her left hand rests on her left knee and holds a half-blown lotus. The next is a similar-sized figure of another goddess. She sits cross-legged and wears her hair in matted coils; she has no ornaments. In her right hand, resting on her knee, is a bijorum and in her left hand, also resting on her knee, is a lotus bud with a stalk.
The images to the visitor's left of the chief figure are, at the top, a sitting Bodhisattva, with the right knee raised and the left leg crossed in front. He wears his hair in matted circles and has no ornaments. His right hand holds a bijorum and rests on his right knee; the left hand rests on the left knee and holds a lotus by the stalk. The next figure is a goddess whose hair is drawn up in matted coils. She has no ornaments and sits cross-legged. Her right hand which is raised above the elbow, probably held a bijorum and her left hand holds a lotus by the stalk. The second from the below is the figure of a goddess in a similar position, except that she holds a lotus stalk in her left hand and a lotus bud in her right. These goddesses are different forms of Tara Devi.
The shrine door is 2' 7" wide and 5' 7" high. In the right wall, to one leaving the doorway is an image of Buddha 3' high, sitting on the usual rich-backed lion-throne with an aureole round his face. Above on either side is a flying angel with bouquets of flowers.
Next, in a recess with three arches, under a large central arch, a teaching Buddha, 2' 3" high, seated on a plain backed lion-throne, rests his feet on a lotus. His head is surrounded by an aureole. Above on either side, an angel flies to him with garlands. On either -side is a fly-whisk bearer. The one to the (visitor's) left of Buddha has a three-tasselled crown, long curly hair flowing over his neck, and bracelets and armlets. His right hand holds a fly-whisk and his left rests on his waist. The bearer to the left of Buddha has his hair in a matted coronet and has no ornament. He holds a lotus bud with stalk in his left hand and a fly-whisk in his right. This group is well carved, and is the best proportioned of all the Nasik Mahayana or later sculptures.
Next in the left wall of the hall is a group of five figures. In the middle is a teaching Buddha seated on a backless throne with an aureole round his face, and his feet resting on a lotus. On either side is a Bodhisattva, his hair in matted coils in which a relic-shrine is enwound. Each holds a fly-whisk in his right hand. The left Bodhisattva holds a narrow-necked jug or chambu in his left hand, and the right figure a lotus bud with stalk in his left hand. By the side of each Bodhisattva is a standing Buddha, the left figure larger than the right.
to the left is a small teaching Buddha seated on a backless throne.
Next is a group of three figures, teaching Buddha seated in the middle
with a fly-whisk bearer on either side. Next is a figure of Buddha 3'
long lying on his right side on a bed or gad, his head resting
on a cushion. This is not like the figure of the dead Buddha at
Close to the left of this large irregular hall was a dwelling-cave consisting of a cell and a veranda. The cell had a bench round the three sides which has been cut away. The back wall of the cell has been broken, the cell lengthened within and the whole, except the old veranda, made into a shrine. In the middle of the back wall is a large teaching Buddha, 6' 2" high by 2' 11" seated on a rich-backed throne. On each side of him, instead of fly-whisk bearers, are two standing Bodhisattvas whose lower parts have been broken. Each has the hair coiled in matted circles, but wears no ornaments. In the matted hair of the Bodhisattva on the left of Buddha is a. relic-shrine, and in the hair of the right Bodhisattva a small Buddha. The left figure held something, perhaps a flower, in his right hand which is broken. The right figure holds a rosary in his right and a lotus bud with stalk in his left hand. Next to the Bodhisattvas on each side is a standing Buddha, slightly larger than the Bodhisattvas. In the right, and left walls are two Buddha and Bodhisattva groups, similar to those on the back wall, the only difference being that the Bodhisattvas hold a fly-whisk in their right hands. Further in front, on the right side, are three small sitting Buddhas in the teaching attitude.
Close beyond is a ruined cell-shrine probably originally a dwelling-cave of one cell. In the back wall is a teaching Buddha seated on the usual rich-backed throne with an aureole round his head and a fly-whisk bearing Bodhisattva on each side. The lower parts of all three are broken. Above each Bodhisattva is a small Buddha seated on a lotus. In the right wall is a Buddha the lower part of which has been broken off. Above on either side, is a small image of Buddha sitting in a lotus. The left wall is broken. Near the top of the left wall of the old cell is a small group of a seated teaching Buddha in the centre, and a fly-whisk bearing Bodhisattva on each side. The right wall of the old cell is broken but portion of two figures remain. In the left wall of the old veranda near the roof is a small group of a teaching Buddha sitting on a sofa with his feet resting on a lotus. On either side a fly-whisk bearer stands On a lotus. At the extreme outer end of this group is a small kneeling figure probably of the man who paid for the carving of the group.
Further on is a broken excavation which consisted of a cell and a veranda. For twenty-eight yards further the rock is not suited for excavation and seems to have been blasted. Next is the beginning of a dwelling-cave, which as the rock is bad, has come to look like a natural cavern. But inscription 24 in its front wall shows that it was once a cave.
Close beyond the last broken cave is something which looks like another excavation.
Cave XXIV: Cave XXIV, about forty yards further to the left, was an old dwelling-cave in two parts, a veranda with two cells in its back wall. In the left end of the veranda was a half cell which probably had a seat. The right cell was, larger than the left one. In the front of the veranda a band of rock dressed like a beam of timber seems to have rested on wooden pillars. From this beam the ends of four cross beams protect. On the face of the left most cross beam is a curiously carved trident, with rampant tigers instead of prongs. The face of the second is broken, on the face of the third are two tigers each with a rider sitting back to back; the fourth has a trident like the first. The beam ends support a belt of rock on the bottom of which about six inches apart rafters stand out about two inches. Above this a frieze about two feet broad consists of a central rail about a foot broad and two side belts of tracery. The lower belt is a row of much worn animals galloping towards the left, each with a boy behind it. Among the animals are tigers, sheep, elephants, bulls, camels, pigs and deer. The rail which is about a foot broad has three horizontal bands, the faces of the uprights being carved apparently with lotus flowers. The upper belt of tracery is a scroll of half lotuses about four inches broad divided by lily heads or lotus seed vessels. On the side wall in the left or east comer is a horse with the face of a woman, who is embraced by a man who rides the horse. Corresponding to this figure on the right end is a tiger, and a little to the right is a broken animal. At the right end of the beam is an owl, and in front of it a small mouse. In what remains of the back wall of the veranda, in the space between the doors of the two cells, is Inscription 26. It is well preserved and the letters are large, distinct and well cut.
The two cisterns mentioned in Inscription 26 must be to the right of the cave. One of the cisterns has still an inscription on the back of a recess. The letters are large, clearly cut and distinct and resemble the letters of Inscription 26.
The floor of the cave has been hewn out, and with the two cisterns, made into a large and deep reservoir. The original shape can still be traced from the upper part.
These details show that there are twenty-four separate caves, all of which except number XVIII, the chapel-cave, are layanas or dwellings. Of the whole numbers III, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XVII, XVIII, XIX and XXII are in their original form unchanged except by weather and to a very small extent by later workmen. Caves VIII, XII, XIII and XIV have suffered from weather, X and XI have been altered not in their general plan, but by additions made by Jainas about the eleventh century.
Cave I, though left unfinished, shows that it was made on the same plan as Caves III and X as a large dwelling for monks. Numbers II, XX and XXIII are old caves, which have been altered and deepened and furnished with images. Their original form, which can still be traced, shows that they were ordinary dwelling-caves. Numbers V, VI. VII and XXIV are also old dwelling-caves which in recent times have been hewn into large cisterns. Numbers IV and XXI are neither chapels nor dwellings, but either dining halls or kitchens. There are other caves on the same plan, some with a bench round the hall, others simple halls, and of these cave XXXXVIII at Junnar is shown by an inscription to be a dining hall or sattra. Numbers XV and XVI are shrines. Thus, except these last two which are later, the original caves were of three kinds, a chaitya or chapel-cave, layanas or dwelling-caves and sattras or dining-caves. Almost every cave had a cistern or two to supply it with water. These old cisterns had small mouths so that they could be covered, and spread inside into a large quadrangular hollow. The chief of the old cisterns are near caves II, III, VIII, IX, XIV and XXI, the broken cistern of cave XVII and several broken cisterns in front of cave XXIII. The cistern to the west of cave X, though now broken, was probably originally in the old style. These three classes of caves and those cisterns appear to be the only original excavations on the hill.
caves, when first finished, do not seem to have contained images. The
later image-worshippers, perhaps because other suitable sites were not
available, instead of cutting fresh caves, changed the old caves to
suit the new worship. The images are chiefly of Gautama Buddha, the
Bodhisattvas, Vairapani and Padmapani, and the Buddhist goddess Tara;
all in the style of the northern Buddhists. Similar images are found,
in some of the Kanheri,
with 5,740 inhabitants as per the 1971 Census, was the capital of the
Basvant, with 12,289 inhabitants according to the census of 1971, is
largely an agricultural village in Niphad taluka situated 16 km. (ten
miles) to the north-west of Niphad. The Bombay-Agra road passes by the
village in its stretch. It is one of the most important grape and vegetable
growing centres in the district, there being extensive vine orchards.
The other important crops raised are wheat, bajra and onion.
A fruit canning factory canning grapes, mangoes and papayas as also
manufacturing fruit juices is profitably worked here by the Bagaitdar
Sangh, Pimpalgaon. Land irrigation is carried out by means of nearly
150 irrigation wells, two second class bandharas and by tapping
the waters of the Parashari stream. The civil dispensary of the village
which was started in 1879 has since been greatly expanded, a maternity
ward has been added and is conducted by the Zilla Parishad. A leprosy
prevention centre equipped with the most modern accessories has been
recently established here. The village has post and telegraph facilities,
a high school and a primary school. The panchayat office has
been housed in a modern three-storeyed building and is perhaps the biggest
office building for a panchayat in the
Pimpri Sadruddin is a small village of 1,333 inhabitants as per the 1971 Census in Igatpuri taluka lying two miles (3.21 km.) south-east of Igatpuri. The village has a dargah of Pir Sadruddin, a Muslim avaliya in whose honour an annual fair or urus is held on the fourth of the dark half of Bhadrapad (September-October). The fair is attended by about 15,000 persons. Rice is the chief agricultural produce and is sent to other places. There is a primary school. River and wells are the sources of water-supply.
Fort, in Baglan, is situated about 6.43 km. north of Jayakhede, a small
village in Baglan taluka and 3.21 km. (two miles) west of the Pisol
pass which leads into Khandesh. Carts, with difficulty, can use the
Pisol pass. The fort is moderately on a high range of hills running
east and west. It is easy of ascent and of large area, and on the south-east
is separated from the range by a deep rock-cut chasm. At the foot of
the hill and spreading some way up its lower slopes, defended by a wall
of rough stones, is the small
Of the buildings nothing remains except an old and decrepit mosque on the south edge of the precipice which is visible from a distance below, and the other the ruins of a large pleasure palace or Rang Mahal. The old gateways are still standing, and nothing else. The Lokhandi gate, now at Galna, is said to have belonged to this building and to have been removed when the fart fell into disrepair.
or Rama's Bedstead, in Dindori, about 11.26 km. (seven miles) south
of Dindori, and about 11.26 km. (seven miles) north of
Captain Briggs had stationed two companies of militia in the fort, one on the top of the hill, the other in the village below. This large party was left at Ramsej so that the garrison might always spare ninety or a hundred men to march after Bhils and other marauders. In the fort besides about a ton of grain and a small quantity of salt there were eight guns, nine small cannons called jamburas, twenty-one jingals, thirty copper pots, forty-one brass pots, 256 pounds of gun-powder, forty pounds of brimstone, forty-five pounds of lead, and 240 pounds of hemp. There were also elephant trappings, tents, carpets, and ironware, which once had been Shivaji's.
only reference to Ramsej which has been traced is the notice that, in
1682, Aurangzeb detached Shah-bud-din Khan to reduce the
3.21 km. (two miles) north-west of Ramsej is Dhair or Bhorgad fort,
1,090.87 metres (3,557 feet) above sea-level. It has an excellent quarry
from which the stones of Kala Rama's temple, the Kapurthala fountain,
and the highly polished black band round the Peshva's new palace
Captain Briggs, who visited the fort in 1818, did not find it steep until at the foot of the rock where it became so difficult that it could be climbed only on all fours like a ladder. There was one fairly good gate with ruined bastions. The walls were ruined, and the hill-top was remarkably steep with no place for grain or ammunition. The water supply was ample.
Ratangad Fort, also called the Nhavi Killa or Barber's fort, stands about 9.60 km. (six miles) east of Mulher. About half way up the hill is the chief entrance and inside the fort are the ruins of what must have once been a stately court-house. On the hill sides are about eight rock-cut reservoirs and an the plateau a temple of Mahadeva and a Musalman tomb. The fort is in disrepair, though naturally strong from the height and steepness of the hill.
with 11,780 inhabitants in 1971, lies 19.31 km. (about 12 miles) north-west
At Dabhadi also there is a sugar factory conducted on co-operative basis. It was promoted by late Bhausaheb Hire and the colony which has grown around it is named after him. Dabhadi also has a primary health center, a primary school, a high school and post office.
are two peaks in the Chandor range to the east of Markinda which jut
out, Ravlya on the west and Javlya on the east of a hill about fifteen
miles (24 km.) north-east of Dindori. Midway between the peaks is a
reservoir divided into two and called the
On the way to Javlya is a gate defended by two towers, and in front of the gate is an image of Ganapati. The gate and the towers are in ruins. The hill was used as a fort during Moghal times and there are the foundations of several buildings. Some parts of the hill are at present under tillage.
In 1818, Captain Briggs, who visited them soon after their surrender to the British, describes Ravlya and Javlya as two small forts standing on a large hill, which is known as Ravlya-Javlya. There are two paths to the hill, one leading from Khandesh, the other leading from either Gangathadi or Khandesh, as it strikes off from a pass between the hill and the neighbouring fort of Markinda. The hill is very large, eight or nine hundred feet (243.84 or 274.32 metres) above the plain, and with a long and easy ascent. The top is a tableland, about a mile and a half long and 700 to 1,400 yards (640 to 1,320 metres) broad. From this plateau rose two curious peaks about 1,000 yards (914.40 metres) from each other. They were of solid rock three or four hundred feet (91.44 or 121.92 metres) high and with almost perpendicular sides. Between the two peaks is a small village whose people live by tilling the plateau. The two forts could be reached only by climbing from rock to rock. The greater part of the top of Javlya is enclosed by a wall with one gate. Ravlya has no gate and a law wall most of which is ruined. Places are cut on the tops of both the forts for granaries and reservoirs. Captain Briggs found two of the Peshva's old militia in each of the forts. By July of the next year (1819) the defences of the two forts were destroyed by Captain Mackintosh. The reservoirs were filled and the steps leading to the top of Javlya were defaced making the ascent almost impracticable.
or the seven-homed, but wrongly called chattar singh or the four-peaked,
rising 1,215.20 metres (4,659 feet) above the sea-level, is one of the
highest points in the Chandor range, It rises about the centre of the
range on the borders of Dindori and Kalvan talukas, 24.14 km. (fifteen
miles) north of Dindori. It is a bare rock of no considerable thickness,
but about half a mile in length, somewhat curved, highest at the ends
and depressed in the centre, like a wall with towers at either ends.
At every turn the appearance of the rock changes. The highest point
rises to a little over 275 metres (900 feet) above the plateau, and
the rock is perpendicular an all sides but one, where it has crumbled
away and grass has grown in the crevices. The rock has more peaks than
one, but it seems to have no claim to the title seven-peaked. The hill
can be climbed from three sides; by a good but steep bridle road from
the north; by a very steep sixty-step path or satha-payryancha marg
on the east, formerly the only road used by the pilgrims, but now
totally abandoned; and on the south by a steep foot-path for part of
the way which ends in a flight of nearly three hundred and fifty steps
carved in the face of the rock. The first and the last are the paths
now commonly used by the pilgrims and the visitors. In the steps figures
of Rama, Hanuman, Radha and
the above-noted rest-house is the samadhi of Dharmadev, a chief
From the plateau of the Saptashring settlement a flight of nearly 472 well-built steps leads to the shrine of Saptashringa-nivasini Devi. These steps were built by Umabai, whose mention has already been made, in 1710 A. D. before the lower steps. The shrine of the goddess is in a cave at the base of a sheer scarp, the summit of which is at the highest point of the hill. The figure of the goddess, carved in relief out of the natural rock, is about 2.43 metres (eight feet) high. Though generally called as ashta-bhuja or eight-handed, the goddess is actually eighteen-handed, all hands armed with different weapons. She wears a high crown not unlike the papal tiara and is clothed with a bodice and a robe wound round the waist and limbs. She has a different robe on each day of the week. Every day she is given a bath, warm water being used on two days in a week. In the open square in front of the temple is planted a trident or Trishula with the usual accompaniments of bells and lamps. A silver nose-ring and necklaces are the only ornaments in daily use. The other jewellery of the goddess is kept at Vani and brought to the temple only on the day of the great fair. The whole figure is painted bright red, save the eyes, which are of white porcelain. Something like a portico was added to the shrine of the goddess at the beginning of the last century by the Satara Commander-in-Chief (?) and the plain structure was later added by the then chief of Vinchur. It is widely believed by the credulous villagers that a tiger almost every night comes and stays in the gabhara keeping a watch on the temple and disappears at day-break.
A large fair lasting for a week and attended by over a lakh of persons is held on the full moon of Chaitra (April). On the occasion a large number of booths are erected and business worth several thousands of rupees is transacted. On the occasion the steps leading to the shrine are crowded with the sick and the maimed who are carried up the hill in the hope that they would be cured. Barren women also go in numbers to make vows to bless them with children. Offerings of grain, flowers, coconuts, money or ornaments are made according to the means. The daily service of the goddess consists in bringing bathing water from the Surya kund and laying before her offerings of rice, milk and sugar boiled together called khir, of cakes, of flour and butter called turis, and of preserves. These offerings, excepting ornaments, become the property of the Bhopa or the hereditary guardians of the temple.
the top of Mahalakshmi at Dahanu the top of Saptashring is said to be
inaccessible to ordinary mortals. The headman of the
As the merit of the pilgrimage is believed to lie in the labour endured in the ascent of the hill, there are for those who desire to secure special religious merit, three other paths round the mountain, one a sort of goat-path round the base of the scarp, a second of greater length on the lower plateau, and a third round the base below. The last which passes through the narrow valleys which divide Saptashring from the rest of the Chandor range is said to be nearly 32 km. (twenty miles) in circuit.
To the east of Saptashring and divided from it by a deep ravine lies the hill of Markinda, believed to have been the abode of sage Markandeya. His spirit is believed to have taken its dwelling in the rock, where during his life-time, he used to recite puranas for the amusement of the Devi, a tradition to which a remarkable echo may have given rise.
the three allowances mentioned above, the temple has the revenues of
a village by name Chanakapur which was set apart for the service of
the goddess by Bajirav, the second Peshva (1720-1740) in the
time of ascetic Gaudasvami. These funds are administered by a panchayat.
It is said that Chhatrasingrav Thoke, the chief disciple of the
the headquarters of Baglana taluka, is a municipal town of commercial
importance, settled, at the confluence of the
In 1297 Ray Karan, the last of the Anhilvada kings, after his defeat at the hands of Ala-ud-din Khilji's general, Ulugh Khan, fled to Baglana and maintained himself in independence until 1306 when he was forced to seek shelter with Ramdev of Devagiri.
1971 its population was 16,720. Besides the revenue, judicial and police
offices the town has post and telegraph, panchayat samiti, sub-divisional
soil conservation office, a sahakari marketing sangh and
a market yard which is important for cotton and grains. The chief crops
taken are bajra, wheat, cotton and sugarcane. A second class
bandhara and irrigation wells together irrigate an area of approximately
408.73 hectares (1,010 acres). There are quite a few ginning factories
as also oil mills. The financial needs of the cultivators are supplemented
by a land mortgage bank and branch of the
Municipality: The municipality here was established in 1954. Its jurisdiction extends over an area of 13.46 square kilometres (5.2 square miles). The municipal committee composed of 16 councillors is presided over by the president. He is elected by the councillors from among themselves. The committee directs the municipal affairs.
Finance: The normal income, excluding receipts under extraordinary and debt heads, for the year 1971-72 stood at Rs. 6,37,000 It comprised such sources as municipal taxes, realisation under special Acts, grants from the Government and miscellaneous. Expenditure, also excluding extra-ordinary and debt heads, amounted to Rs. 6,99,000.
Health and sanitation: For medical aid, the Zilla Parishad maintains a primary health centre and a maternity home. It also conducts a veterinary dispensary. No medical aid institution is maintained by the town municipality. Drainage system consists of only open gutters, stone-lined and cemented. A large part of the refuse is turned into compost manure. Water-supply is drawn from wells, private and municipal.
Education: Primary education is compulsory and is enforced by the Zilla Parishad. The municipality, however, contributes 5 per cent of the total cost. The amount so paid stood at Rs. 21,016.55 in 1964-65. There are two high schools, both being conducted privately. There are also two libraries, one of which is maintained by the municipality and for which a new building is under construction.
and burial grounds: Cremation
and burial grounds are managed by the municipality. The cremation ground
for Hindus is situated on the Aram bank and the Muslim burial ground
along the road to
Platforms for weekly and daily markets have been provided. There is also a proposal to have a separate fire-fighting unit for the municipality.
Satana has temples dedicated to Mahalakshmi, Mahadeva, Khandoba, Maruti. All these were damaged during the 1872 floods, but have since been re-built. There is also a temple built in commemoration of one Yashavant Maharaj, a saint highly revered by the local populace. At this temple a fair attended by about 3,000 persons is held on Margashirsha Vadya 11.
with 2,975 inhabitants in 1971, settled along the banks of the
Shivare, with 1,334 inhabitants in 1971, is a village in Niphad taluka lying 6.43 km. (4 miles) south-east of Niphad railway station having a remarkable group of memorial stones. Such memorial stones are found scattered practically all over the district and are specially numerous near the Sahyadris. At Chausale, 12.87 km. (eight miles) north-west of Vani in Dindori taluka, there is a group of unusually large stones. These memorial stones vary in height from 0.914 to 1.828 metres (three to six feet) and are cut square generally about one foot (0.304 metre) across. The faces are carved with rude figures, sometimes of one or more men on horse-back sometimes armed with swords. There are great varieties of figures on foot, some of which are armed. Their number varies from one to three and even four. Many of them are shown to hold each other's hands. Some wear the waist-cloth; others apparently children, are dressed in petticoats. In some cases rude inscriptions are carved under figures. Many of the stones somewhat resemble the old stones found in some of the Scotch graveyards. It is told that they do not necessarily mark the spot where the dead were buried or cremated. The custom seems to have prevailed among all the cultivating classes, but more especially among Kunbis, Kolis and Vanjaris.
As distinguished from memorial stones, memorial pasts have also been discovered at some places. They are of all shapes. The figures are generally fewer and the carving poorer than on the stone slabs. Sometimes stones and posts are found side by side. On Shraddha days both these are worshipped and smeared with red paint. Unlike the posts, the stones are highly revered and jealously preserved. In no case have stones and posts been found which are said to mark an old battle-field. As a rule they are close to the village but not connected with temple or any holy spot. They are always said to be memorials of ancestors. This practice of erecting such type of memorials has, however, fallen in disuse in modern times. In some of the western villages there are posts with a small shrine at the top containing an image inclosed with glass. These are not common nor monumental and belong to the Bhils. The village has a primary school. Some land has been brought under well-irrigation.
Sinnar, a municipal town and headquarters of the taluka of the same name, with in 1971, a population of 20,218, stands on a high level ground, on the Poona-Nasik road, about 27.35 km. (17 miles) south-east of Nasik. It was surrounded by a mud-wall, practically in ruins now, the people having taken the mud for building and thatching cottages. It contains quite a few modem houses. A town planning scheme has been prepared by the municipality on the lines of which the further development of the town would be carried out.
Municipality: Constitution: The municipality here was established in 1860. Its jurisdiction extends over an area of 11.36 square kilometres (4 square miles). Eighteen elected councillors constitute the municipal committee, which, with the president as the presiding head, looks after the administration. The council is assisted' by the necessary ministerial staff.
Finance: The total municipal income accrued from sources like taxes, municipal property, and grants for special and general purposes amounted to Rs. 7,66,000 during 1971-72. During the same year an expenditure of Rs. 8,98,000 was incurred on various heads such as administration and collection, public health, safety and convenience, public instruction, grants and contributions and the like.
Municipal Works: No permanent sheds have been provided for holding the daily and weekly bazars. However, such a proposal is now under consideration. A bridge across the Sarasvati was constructed in 1952-53 at a cost of Rs. 29,376 thus facilitating communications. The municipal office and the dispensary buildings are of municipal propriety.
Health, sanitation and water-supply: In recent times the municipality has considerably improved and extended the medical aid facilities rendered to the public, there being a dispensary with eight beds and a maternity home with twenty beds. Measures are also taken from time to time to immunise the people against various epidemics. The drainage system consists of pucca stone-lined gutters and as the town expands so is the drainage system extended. The proposal for underground drainage was shelved, as the need of asphalting the roads was more acutely felt.
The works supplying water to the greater part of the town were completed in 1954 at a cost of Rs. 7,09,542. It is installed on the Dev river and draws water from three wells sunk in the river-bed, the third having been sunk at a later date. Besides this, the Gaothan area supply is drawn from another well fitted with a pump.
Education: Primary education is compulsory. It is conducted by the Zilla Parishad, the municipality sharing five per cent of the total annual expenditure so incurred. Apart from the primary schools, there are two bal vadis and two high schools, one of the latter of which is conducted by the municipality. The high school which is privately conducted receives an annual grant of Rs. 1,500 from the municipality. In 1964-65 the public library of the town also received a grant of Rs. 751.
Fire service: For fire fighting a tractor with a pulley and a tanker with the other necessary equipment is maintained.
Cremation and burial places: There are two cremation and four burial grounds out of which one burial-ground is used by the Muslims and the rest by the Hindus.
and industries: Sinnar is
one of the important weaving centres in the district. A large number
of power-looms and to a lesser extent hand and other ordinary looms
are worked here, weaving a variety of robes and sadis. Most of
the weavers have been brought under the co-operative fold, there being
quite a few co-operatives of weavers. Though the trade is not very flourishing,
nevertheless it has succeeded in giving employment to a large number
of families. Sinnar has as many as five bidi factories, the bidis
turned here being well- known not only in Maharashtra but also in
History: The earliest historical mention of Sinnar appears to be Sindiner in a copper-plate grant of 1069 A. D. Tradition ascribes the founding of the town to a Gavali chief by name Rav Shinguni, perhaps Seunendu of the copper-plate about 800 years ago. In the seventeenth century it became the headquarters of the Chief Officer of the Emperor of Delhi in these parts and its population greatly increased. Later still it was the seat of the government of Amritrav Deshmukh, who was appointed head of fourteen sub-divisions by the Moghal Emperor. In his time the population of Sinnar still further increased. He is also said to have built the aforementioned town walls and laid a masonry dam across the river. His vada or palace, now in partial ruins, was perhaps the largest building in the town then, and contained within its outside walls many separate collections of houses. About the year 1790, Sinnar appears in Maratha records as the headquarters of a sub-division in the district of Sangamner with an yearly revenue of about Rs. 29,000. Sinnar also figured mildly in the revolutionary activities that culminated in the 1857 War of Independence. In November 1822 a band of forty insurgents assembled at Sinnar and were joined by twenty-five more. Their leader, one certain Krishna Kuver gave out that their object was to overthrow the British authority from Kankari, a village about 16 km. south-west of Sinnar and take possession of it; but this was only small part of a large plot. Unfortunately all were captured at Kankari and on surrendering their arms and horses, were released.
Sinnar, besides the Mamlatdar's office, has a civil judge’s court, panchayat samiti, a police station under a sub-inspector, sub-divisional soil conservation office and a host of other public offices. There are a post and telegraph office and a telephone exchange. A largely-attended weekly bazar is held on Sundays. Sinnar is one of the places over which the Nizam released his control after his defeat in the battle of Udgir fought in January 1760.
more correctly Tryambak or the three-eyed, a name of Mahadeva, is a
small but a far-famed place of Hindu pilgrimage, with in 1971 a population
of 5,495. It is a municipal town at the base of the eastern spur of
the Sahyadris, about 29 km. (18 miles) south-west of
1961 Census showed that the Hindus are in predominance and that a large
proportion of them are Brahmans connected with the temples, mostly pilgrims,
priests or tirtha padhyayas. Some of them held in mediaeval times
the hereditary village accountantships of the neighbouring villages
Municipality: The town municipality has an area of 11.90 square kilometres (4.6 square miles) under its jurisdiction. Sixteen councillors constitute the municipal committee which is responsible for the administrative and other affairs connected with the municipal functioning. The committee is presided over by a president elected by the councillors from among-themselves. In 1971-72 the total municipal income, derived from various sources of which the pilgrim tax was the major source, amounted to Rs. 3,47,000. Expenditure during the same year stood at Rs. 3,91,000. The town, has a municipal dispensary and a maternity home, and a veterinary dispensary of the Zilla Parishad. As yet there is no good drainage system, there being stone-lined gutters which embrace only a small part of the town. In 1921 were installed the water-works by the Government on the Gangasagar tank. These were later made over to the municipality. A few primary schools, a high school and a Ved Shala are the only educational institutions in the town. A library is maintained by the municipality.
Although Trimbak is only
4.82 km. (three miles) in a direct line from the main Sahyadri line,
it is almost completely shut from the western breezes by the intervening
hill, on which the hardly accessible fort of Trimbak is built. The fort
is 1,297.79 metres (4,248 feet) above the sea-level and about 548.64
metres (1.800 feet) above the town. Towards the town the hill on which
the fort stands presents at the foot a steep slope of fragments of trap
rock. Above the slope is a sheer, in some places a overhanging cliff,
probably a thousand feet (304.80 metres) high. In the northern spur
is a great gap called the great Vinayak Khind and in the southern
face is a cleft known as the great gate or Mahadarvaja which
served as the main entrance to the fort. Its shut in position as also
the want of good drainage once made the town of
As has been already mentioned,
the water-supply is drawn from two of the eight tanks or talavs in
and around the town. These two are the Visoba talav at some distance
from the centre of the town on the south and the Gangalaya, also known
as Gangasagar, on the west. The Gangalaya is a large talav of
175.26 x 175.26 metres (575' x 575') dimensions and holds
ample water. Its sides are said to have been stone-lined about 1777
by Naro Shankar at a cost of Rs. 75,000. Water from both these talavs
is pumped in an overhead tank from where it is distributed by pipe-lines.
The Gangasagar is fed by springs which never show signs of failing.
The overflow of the talav is the source of the Trimbak branch
The wastage and the leakage of the Gangasagar talav flow through the town in a channel lined with cut-stone masonry, with at short intervals steps leading to the water. The bed of the channel is used as a dust-bin by the residents in its neighbourhood. The flow of water runs low as early as October, and ceases in the hot season. In passing through the town the water becomes very impure, the last defilement being the ashes of the dead, as the cremation ground is only a short distance from the town.
and for a short time after the rains a small stream trickles from one
of the numerous fissures on the face of the scarp of the Trimbak hill,
and flows from a gomukha or cow's mouth under a small stone image
of goddess Ganga, which stands in a niche and is the chief object of
worship. This is known as Gangadvar and is held to be the source of
Trimbakeshvar temple: Trimbakeshvar Mahadeva temple is the chief and most noticeable temple in the town. It was built by the third Peshva Balaji Bajirav (1740-1761) on the site of an older but much humbler shrine. It stands in the midst of a paved courtyard enclosed by a huge rampart wall of 80.77 x 66.45 metres (265 x 218') measurements with four entrances, the northern entrance being surmounted by a nagarkhana or the drum chamber. Near the western entrance is the kothi or the store-house. In front of the doors to the temple stand large dipmals or lamp-pillars furnished with numerous branched brackets on which lights are placed on festive and holy occasions. Near the temple door, under an elegantly carved stone pavilion with ornamented roof rests the great bull or nandi, the carrier of Mahadeva. A square outer hall or mandap of massive proportions having a door on each face stands in front of the shrine. Porches with separate roofs, but with the same entablature and cornice as the hall stand out from it. The doorways of the porches are richly ornamented with cusped arches, upon carved side-posts supporting a strongly projecting entablature above which, round both the porches and the outer hall, runs a double cornice and frieze, sculptured with elaborate minuteness. The roof is formed of slabs rising in steps from the architraves. These slabs are curvilinear externally and each supports a discoid termination, the shape of which in every case is related to that of the dome which it surmounts. Above the discoid terminations is a lotus-like finial which gives what grace it may to the flattened domes of these ponderous structures. The great tower of the temple covering the shrine rises behind the outer hall. The ground plan is what may be called a broken square, heavily and thickly buttressed. An excessive solidity of appearance is given by the form of the buttresses which spread at the base, and seem to root the whole building to the ground. The face of every buttress is niched and every niche is filled with carved figures of men and animals, with flowers and scroll work crowded everywhere. The far projecting entablature and the deep cornices cast their strong shadows and add to the rich and massive appearance of the whole. Above the cornice rise numerous spirelets of the same shape and proportions as the great spire, the conical layers of which are each surmounted with a carved ornament. The spire itself rises to a great height. It is crowned with a proportionate terminal and supports a brightly gilt pot or kalash unlike the other linga symbols, the linga here has a hollow or pit in which three small lingas of the size of a betel-nut representing Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh are set in from under which water oozes out drop by drop. This water is collected in a kund in the courtyard and used as tirtha by the devotees and pilgrims.
Fairs: Every year two fairs are held at this temple, one on Karttika full moon (October-November) and the other on Magha Vadya Chaturdashi or the great Shivratri (February-March) both of which are attended by a large number of people. Besides land the temple has a Government cash allowance of Rs. 11,514 a year and receives offerings from pilgrims valued at a little over Rs. 5,000. The beautiful chariot or the Ratha drawn by worshippers on the fair days was presented to the temple by the Vinchur chief in about 1865, Even to-day the Vinchurkars bear three days' expenditure.
1952 was created the Trimbakeshvar trust. The management of the temple
as in the olden days rests with the Joglekars, a Brahman family. In
olden days, the Tungars who lived in the temple, cleaned it and waited
upon the god were under Joglekars receiving all perquisites except
ornaments and money which were taken possession of by the Joglekars.
Since the formation of the trust, the Tungars receive money and ornaments
too. The God who wears a five-faced golden masque, is fed three times
a day, at eight in the morning, at eleven and at nine at night. Besides
the golden crown, there is another inlaid with diamonds and emeralds.
It is told of this crown that the Moghals took it from the
this main temple there is a smaller one on top of the Trimbak fort and
enjoys a yearly Government grant of Rs. 160. The original temple was
demolished and a mosque erected in its place by the Moghals. After the
cession of the fort to the Marathas under the terms of the Treaty of
Bhalki ratified on 24th November 1752 between the Marathas and the Nizam,
Nanasaheb Peshva demolished the mosque and re-built the original
temple. Here also there are two tirthas known as Kushavarta
and Gangodakan, the latter of which is considered to be the
source of the
Cave: To the west of the
platform a path runs along the hill-side to Gorakhnath's cave, where
same Kanphata Gosavis reside. The platform commands a striking
view of the town below with its temples and sacred bathing places like
Kushavarta. Kankhal Bilv, Ballal, Prayag, Visoba, Moti and numerous
others. Across the plain winds the small silvery streak of the
Gosavi Monastery: On the
plain between Trimbak and Anjaneri are a monastery or math and
a pool called Prayag tirtha where the Nirbani Gosavis live.
It was from this monastery that the procession of naked ascetics used
to walk to the Kushavarta reservoir in Trimbak town. The men walked
there abreast with banners flying and gold and silver trumpets blowing
while crowds looked on in admiration. Besides Nirbanis, other
wandering ascetics came from all parts of
As a rule pilgrims visiting
Trimbak do not stay for more than fourteen days. Some lodge in the town,
where wealthy men have provided rest-houses or dharmashalas, some
others lodge with their appointed tirthopadhyayas, but most in
the fields round the town. The pilgrim, after going through the prescribed
bathing and worship, starts on the round of visiting the chief objects
of holiness in and about the town. He bathes in the Kushavarta and after
bathing goes to worship Trimbakeshvar Mahadeva. None is allowed to enter
the sanctuary, thus putting a stop to the ancient custom when only Brahmans
could enter the sanctuary. A feast to the
Trimbak has many other small temples dedicated to various deities. It has post and telegraph facilities and a rest-house at a mile’s distance from the town proper.
Fort: Trimbak fort, which is 4,248 feet (1.294.80 metres) above the sea, was described in 1818 as on a scarp so high and inaccessible as to be impregnable by any army or artillery, however numerous or well served. The hill was ten miles (16 km.) round the base and about four miles (6.43 km.) round the top. The scarp, which varied in height from two to four hundred feet (60.96 to 121.92 metres) of perpendicular rock, surrounded the hill in every part, leaving no points except two gateways. The chief gateway through which the garrison received their stores and provisions was on the south. The north gateway was only a single gate, the passage to which was by narrow steps cut out of the rock, and wide enough for only one person at a time. This passage was cut four to six feet (1.21 to 1.82 metres) in the rock, and had nearly 300 steps, each furnished with side grooves or niches. These grooves were required to hold on by, as at half way up and after, it was hazardous to look back down the cliff which had 600 to 700 feet (182.88 to 213.36 metres) of a sheer drop, The top was surmounted by a building through which a six feet (1.82 metres) wide passage wound about twenty feet (6 metres) in the rock. The mouth was protected by a double gateway, from which the further ascent was through a hatchway. These winding stairs were covered by the building whose beams crossed the stairs overhead, and which, if knocked down, would only add strength to the place by burying the passage gateway. The head of this passage was defended by two towers connected by a curtain, in which was the gateway. The height of the hill was not so great on the north as on the south side, but it rose more abruptly and the ascent was steeper. Besides the gateways there were a few towers and works on different parts of the hill, but their position did not seem to have been chosen with a view to increase the strength of the fortress. The magazines and almost all the houses of the garrison were cut in the rock.
At the foot of the scarp, and at a short distance from the passage leading to the north gate, was an old village in ruins. The fort has now broad rock-cut steps leading up the top.
the Maratha war of 1817, Bajirav II yielding to the threats of Elphinstone
surrendered the control of Trimbak, Sinhgad, Purandar and Rajgad to
the British. He also issued a declaration branding devoted Trimbakji
Dengle as a rebel who should be caught dead or alive. As the war continued
Trimbak, Rajdhair and
To cut off from the Maratha resisters all hope of escape by the south side, and to distract their attention, two six-pounders and a howitzer were detached and established as high up the hill and as near to the south gate as the nature of the ground allowed. The attack began on the 23rd. At eight in the morning the detachment took its ground before the fort, and the whole of the entrenching tools and materials collected for the siege were carried into the village to the place chosen for the engineer's store. At four in the evening a detachment of fifty Europeans, fifty irregulars, and 150 horse with two six-pounders, marched from camp to take a position opposite the south gateway. With them was a working party under an officer of engineers, consisting of a small detail of sappers and miners, thirty pioneers, and fifty litter-bearers, provided with forty wickercages or gabions and 2,000 sand-bags. A battery for the two six-pounders and a place of arms for the troops were prepared during the night, and one of the guns was carried up and placed in battery. For the operations on the north side a working party was got ready of half the corps of sappers and miners, fifty Europeans, 100 litter-bearers and about 100 lascars. As soon as it was dusk, the battery and place of arms were laid put, and when it grew dark the working party advanced and began operations. At twelve at night the relief for the working party arrived in the trenches, consisting of the remaining half of the sappers and miners, fifty sepoys, 400 pioneers and 200 litter-bearers. Owing to the rocky nature of the ground it was necessary to carry the earth to the battery from a distance. It was deemed, therefore, advisable not to relieve the old working party but keep both at work, and thus, by great labour, the works were finished a little before daylight, and four heavy guns, two eight-inch mortars and two eight-inch howitzers, were got into battery. During the night the enemy fired occasionally on the working party from their different guns, but no casualties occurred.
On the 24th the battery opened at daylight and with great effect, so that in three hours all the Maratha guns were silenced, and it was found on reconnoitring that they had left the ruined village. This induced the commanding officer to attempt a lodgment there at midday instead of waiting till night as had originally been intended. The working and covering parties for this service were ordered to parade at noon in rear of the work. From some misconception of orders the covering party advanced three quarters of an hour before the time ordered and before the working party were ready and instead of remaining quiet under cover of the walls and houses, they attempted to force the gateway and the bluff rock 200 feet (60.96 metres) in perpendicular height.
The Marathas opened a very heavy fire of Jinjals rockets, and matchlocks, and rolled large stones on the assailants. When the working party arrived they tried in vain to establish themselves. At the same time the British battery discontinued firing as the artillerymen were worn out by twelve hours' incessant labour and the working party were forced to retire with loss behind the walls of the village where they remained till night when a battery for four six-pounders was completed. During the afternoon of the 23rd the Marathas, fancying from the desperate enterprise of that morning that an attempt had really been intended by the narrow passage, and believing that neither rocks, walls nor artillery could stop their assailants, lowered one of their number by a rope, who when within hail, called out that the commandant was willing to treat with Colonel McDowell. The usual demand of the payment of arrears was made and refused. About six in the morning of the 24th, a Jamadar of the garrison came down, and terms were arranged for the surrender of the place, the garrison being allowed to retire with their arms and private property. In the course of the day the garrison turned out. There were about 535 men, Rajputs and Marathas with a few Sidis or Abyssinians. It was arranged that they should leave by the south gate but so well had it been secured inside by heaps of stones that they Were not able to clear a way for themselves before three O'clock in the afternoon. Within the fort were found twenty-five pieces of ordnance, from a thirty-three down to a one-pounder, with a sufficiency of ammunition. The loss in taking this important fortress amounted to thirteen Europeans and nine Indians, including two officers. This loss was small, but the state to which the heavy guns and their carriages was reduced was a serious inconvenience. There were no means of replacing them. The siege of hill-forts was particularly destructive to gun-carriages. To give the pieces sufficient elevation it was necessary to sink the trails into the ground. Where this, as at Trimbak, was impracticable from the rocky site of the battery, the wheels had to be raised on sand-bags.
The fall of Trimbak so alarmed the commandants of the other forts that sixteen strong places surrendered without resistance. The occupation of so many forts caused serious embarrassment. No regular could be spared, and irregulars raised for the purpose were unworthy of trust. The temporary use of irregulars could not be avoided. At the same time application was made to Brigadier-General Doveton for more Native Infantry, who ordered two companies of the: second Battalion of the 13th Regiment to join from Jalna with all expedition.
months after the surrender of Trimbak fort Trimbakji Dengle tried to
re-take it by surprise. Only a few men of the 13th Madras Infantry,
commanded by a Subhedar, had been left in the fortress. One morning
the sentries at the north gate were asked to admit a band of pilgrims
who wished to worship the source of the
The Brahmans of Trimbak played a heroic role during the 1857 War of Independence. At their instigation a party of Bhils and Thakurs attacked the Trimbak treasury on the night of the 5th of December 1857, and some of the men who took part in the rising hid themselves in the hills round Trimbak. The hills were searched and among the men who were made prisoners a Thakur named Pandu acknowledged his share in the outbreak and stated that he and his people had risen under the advice of a Trimbak Brahman whom, he said, he knew by sight and could point out. Another of the prisoners confirmed this story and promised to identify the Brahman. Mr. Chapman, the civil officer in charge of the district, who knew that the rising and attack on Trimbak had been organized by Brahmans, had brought all the Brahmans of Trimbak into his camp and ranged them in rows, but no one had come forward to identify the leading conspirators. Pandu was called and told to examine the rows of Brahmans and find out whether the man who had advised his people to revolt was among them. Pandu walked down the line and stopping before a Brahman, whose face was muffed, asked that the cloth might be taken away, and on seeing his face said that he was one of the Brahmans who had persuaded the Thakurs to attack Trimbak. Then the other Thakur who had confessed, was called in, and walking down the line picked out the same Brahman. Next morning this Brahman was tried, found guilty, condemned to death, and hanged. Another family which participated in the 1857 struggle was the Jites. Their entire property was confiscated. Involved in the conspiracy was Vasudev Bhagvant Joglekar. Before being taken to the gallows he was asked to express his desire upon which he said that the management of the Trimbakeshvar temple should rest with the Joglekar family. His wish was given effect to.
Fort, at the foot of which is the settlement of Tringalvadi with 1,018
inhabitants as per the 1971 Census, stands 881.78 metres (2,893 feet)
above the sea and lies 9.65 km. (six miles) north-west of Igatpuri and
6.43 km. (four miles) north of the Thal pass. It was visited by Captain
Briggs in 1818 who found the path up the lower part of the hill long
and easy. The scarp of the rock is low and a flight of sixty rock-cut
steps leads up its face at the end of which is a Hanuman in bas-relief
in the opposite wall. Time has withered some of these steps. The way
up has been strategically cut in that its winding nature and open banks
above do not permit the enemy to rush headlong as at every curve the
enemy could be held only by a handful of men. Adjoining the Hanuman
carving is the entrance gate also but in rock. One has to bend double
to pass through this gateway as it is practically blocked up by silt
and mud drained during successive monsoons. The sides of the rock in
which the flight is cut have also developed deep fissures which might
lead to the caving in of the sides and block the passage altogether.
There is also a second approach on, the other side of the hill but it
has purposely been stopped with stones and earth. In 1636 Tringalvadi
fort is mentioned among the places which Shahaji, Shivaji's father,
was forced to cede to the Moghals after his defeat at Mahuli in
about 37 km. (23 miles) north-west of
Vani, perhaps the largest village in Dindori taluka, lying about 20.92 km. (thirteen miles) north of Dindori and 4.82 km. (three miles) south of Saptashring hill, was once the headquarters of a petty division. The Nasik-Dindori-Vani road branches off at this point towards Surgana and Kalvan, and it is because of facilities of good transport that the timber depot from Chausale seems to have been removed hither. About a mile south of the village is located the forest bungalow. Vani is also known for grain trade and is inhabited by many well-to-do grain-dealers. The weekly market is held on Tuesdays. In 1971 its population was 6,548.
earliest historical mention of Vani is as Van in a copper-plate or 930
A. D of the Rashtrakuta king
the fort built by Ganpatrav there was a small reservoir and a
largely an agricultural village in Niphad taluka with a population of
7,199 in 1971, lies 6.43 km. (4 miles) south of Lasalgaon, the nearest
railway station on the Bombay-Nagpur route of the Central Railway, with
which it is connected by a bridged and metalled road. It was the residence
of the Chief of Vinchur, a Maratha Sardar of rank, and whose
descendants continue to stay there to the present times. Vinchur was
granted as a military saranjam estate to Vitthal Shivdev who
distinguished himself at the capture of
Though Vinchur has made good progress in the co-operative field and has co-operative societies of weavers, oil-expellers, better farming, multi-purpose and the like, it has made no progress whatever towards industrialization and hence the population even to-day depends upon the land. The chief crops grown are wheat, bajra and groundnut. There is also a small trade in cotton goods, the weekly market being held on Fridays. The village has a high school, an agricultural school, a primary school and an Urdu school. An ayurvedic dispensary is conducted by the Zilla Parishad. There is also a post office. Vinchur has quite a few temples and four mosques, none of which merit any attention. Fairs are held in honour of Shani, Khanderav and Mahadev on Magha Vadya Amavasya, Margashirsha Shuddha Shashthi, and Chaitra Shuddha Pratipada respectively. Each fair is attended by nearly 2,000 persons.
Vavi is largely an agricultural village in Sinnar taluka with a population of 6,142 in 1971, chiefly producing bajra. It is connected by a good made road with the taluka headquarters, buses plying either way. The coarse blankets woven here are well-known and find a ready market all over the district. Vavi contains two antique shrines dedicated to Siddheshvar and Vaijeshvar respectively and a samadhi built in memory of one Parasharam, a local poet.
As one faces the temple there is a rectangular step-well to the right having two flights of steps, one each on either side of the rectangular platform-like structure on level with the ground. In the wall above the flight of steps nearer the temple there is an inscribed stone bearing an eight-lined inscription. It has developed cracks, but the date Shaka 1710 is clearly legible. It appears that the well was constructed in that year, viz., 1788 A. D. and perhaps is contemporaneous with the temple. Local inhabitants use the well for washing clothes. There is no provision for the maintenance of the temple or for the daily puja. However, the local gurav attends to the daily routine.
Parasharam Samadhi: Hardly a furlong away from the Vaijeshvar temple is the samadhi of Parasharam, a poet of Vavi, whose period is given as 1754 to 1844 A. D. The vrindavan is supposed to have been built at the place where he resided. He belonged to the tailor community and composed ballads. The samadhi is inside a walled structure with a roof of tin-sheets. It is half open. The whole construction is in a miserable condition. The date of construction of the samadhi cannot be determined in the absence of any records. It may be considered to be of historical importance, and sentimental value.
In a mound near a tank a stone prabhaval was discovered. The main image is missing from its place. At the top of the prabhaval there are a few images including one of seated Buddha.
Yeola, the headquarters of the taluka of the same name, with in 1971 a population of 24,533, is a station on the Manmad-Dhond section of the Central Railway, 29 km. (18 miles) south of Manmad and 260.71 km. (162 miles) north-east of Bombay. It is also connected with all the major towns of the district as also outside with good made roads, the Malegaon-Ahmadnagar high road passing close to the west of the town.
Municipality: The town has a municipality which was established in 1858. Its jurisdiction extends over an area of 6.73 square kilometres (2.6 square miles). A council composed of 21 members and presided over by a president looks after the administrative affairs.
Finance: In 1964-65, the total municipal income amounted to Rs. 4,03,941. The items composing the municipal income were municipal rates and taxes Rs. 2,61,334; revenue derived from municipal property apart from taxation Rs. 73,419 and grants and contributions Rs. 69,188. Expenditure during the same year stood at Rs. 3,75,734. It comprised general administration and collection charges Rs. 99,233; public safety Rs. 28,781; public health and convenience Rs. 2,07,112; public instruction Rs. 9,229 and miscellaneous including capital expenditure Rs. 31,179. However, it is to be noted that both income and expenditure figures quoted above exclude extra-ordinary and debt heads which stood at Rs. 40,544 and Rs. 61,950 respectively.
Health, water-supply and sanitation: The medical aid facilities available to the inhabitants have been considerably improved with the establishment of the Zilla Parishad. Now the town has one civil dispensary with an attached maternity ward and a veterinary dispensary working towards the improvement of the live-stock bread as also treating the live-stock. There is also a charitable ayurvedic dispensary privately conducted by Messrs. Gangaram Chhabildas.
is supplied, at present, from quite a few wells fitted with electric
pumps. One of these wells is located about a mile north of the town
and has a good spring. From this well water is led by a drift way and
piped into some reservoirs in the town. This supply is augmented by
another water-supply scheme executed in 1953, as also from a well in
Nagde village which is brought by means of tankers. However, supply
from all these sources falls short of the requirements of the town in
summer. To counter this scarcity, a water works scheme to be implemented
in two stages and estimated to cost about Rs. 22,87,800 is being implemented.
The first stage would consist of the tapping of the
The town has no special drainage. There are only stone-lined open gutters which are inadequate to carry the waste water. With the implementation of the water-supply scheme it is expected that the drainage problem would be very acute and hence the municipality is proposing to have underground drainage.
Education: Primary education is compulsory and is entrusted to the care of the Zilla Parishad. However, the municipality bears 5 per cent of the total annual cost so incurred. Yeola has two high schools, both privately conducted and two libraries, viz., Sarvajanik Vachanalaya and Akbari Vachanalaya which receive annually Rs. 1,000 and Rs. 300 respectively from the municipality as grant-in-aid.
Fire Service: The municipality maintains no separate equipment for fire fighting as such. In times of emergencies the water tankers are pressed into service.
Cremation and burial places: Only one cremation and burial ground is managed by the municipality. Besides this there are nine such burial-grounds located at different places which are privately maintained and used, i.e., by the communities concerned.
Yeola is the birth-place
of that famous revolutionary Tatya Tope who played such a prominent
role in the 1857 War of Independence against the British. At the time
of its foundation it was under the emperor of
Yeola is the third important
town in the district, its importance dating back to 1667, when one Raghoji
Patil persuaded a number of craftsmen to settle them by offering them
land on favourable terms. From historical times Yeola is well known
for the manufacture of silk and cotton goods and of gold thread or jar.
Though this industry finds itself in the doldrums to-day, yet silk
saris, shalus and paithanis woven here find a place in
the markets of
Jumma mosque: The Jumma masjid admeasuring 15.24 x I5.24 metres is located in the Pinjari lane and is the biggest mosque in the town. Its ceiling is supported on massive pillars and the top is crowned by two minars.
Being the headquarters of a taluka there are a court, Mamlatdar's office, panchayat samiti, soil conservation and land consolidation offices, a police station and amenities of post and telegraph and telephone, A market is held on Tuesdays on a well-shaded site. The prominent commodities that figure among others are wheat, bajra and other cereals, cattle and sheep. It is attended by about 20,000 persons some of whom come from great distances. A large amount of business is transacted.
with 5,134 inhabitants as per the 1971 Census, is a large village on
the Bombay-Agra road, about 24 km. (15 miles) north-east of
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Executive Editor and Secretary, Gazetteers Department, Government of Maharashtra.